Thursday, May 21, 2020

The Atomic Bomb Was Built During Ww2 - 1066 Words

The atomic bomb was built during ww2 and was a major factor in winning the war against the japanese. Germany began to develop the atomic bomb and roosevelt caught wind of this and he put a group of scientist together to develop the atomic bomb before the germans developed it. Einstein found proof that the germans were going to use uranium to build the atomic bomb â€Å"I understand that Germany has actually stopped the sale of uranium from the Czechoslovakian mines, which she has taken over†(Einstein).Soon a letter from albert einstein after hearing about the germans trying to build a bomb said that â€Å"through the work of Joliot in france as well as fermi and szilard in america-- that it may be possible to set up a nuclear chain reaction in a large mass of uranium†(Einstein). After a while of working on the first atomic bomb it was finally made and codenamed â€Å"Gadget† and tested in the mexico desert on a unpopulated landscape. The development of t he atomic was made a secret by roosevelt and the name of the project for the development of the nuclear bomb was called the manhattan project . In the manhattan project two scientists helped in the development of the next two atomic bombs which were enrico fermi and robert j oppenheimer . In the letter from einstein enrico fermi found out how to make a nuclear chain reaction and it was the major factor in the Tocmo 2 developing of the atomic bomb and enrico fermi â€Å" he recreated many of his experiments with Niels Bohr, theShow MoreRelatedWhy The Allies Were Victorious At The End Of World War II1377 Words   |  6 PagesWorld War 2 The crushing defeat and ultimate failure of the Axis Powers was caused by significant events that had a great impact on the war. The Allies were victorious in 1945 due to the sheer military power of the United States, the infamous Soviet Transformation and the ‘Battle of Moscow’, the crushing fall of Japan and the vast resource differences between the Axis Powers and the Allies. These major events that took place during World War 2 helped shape the victorious outcome for the Allies, by notRead MoreThe Manhattan Project Essay901 Words   |  4 PagesThe world was shocked when the United States dropped two atomic bombs on Japan in 1945. The bombs were a result of years of research and testing completed by the nation’s top physicists in a top-secret project called the Manhattan Project. The Manhattan Project was a crucial development by the United States because it quickly ended the war with Japan. In August 1939, Albert Einstein and Leo Szilard drafted the Einstein-Szilard letter to send to President Roosevelt. The letter outlined the needRead MoreAmericas Dropping the Bomb on Hiroshima714 Words   |  3 PagesExplain why America dropped the bomb on the city of Hiroshima and describe the effects of the bombing? America had an allied victory over the Germans but the war was still continuing in the pacific so the Americans decided drop the atomic bomb on Hiroshima causing mass destruction, but how did the scientists know that it would work and if it worked how it would get to Hiroshima? Once they dropped the bomb what would happen to the targeted area and did America even think of the repercussions of theirRead MoreThe Atomic Bomb : Manhattan Project1331 Words   |  6 PagesTopic: The Atomic Bomb: Manhattan Project The Manhattan Project was a research and development project that produced the first nuclear weapons during World War II. The Manhattan project was the invention of the first two nuclear bombs, Fat man and little boy. These two bombs were dropped on Japanese islands to end World War II. Math The formula E=MC2 is responsible for the immense power of the Atomic Bomb. E = mc2, equation in German-born physicist Albert Einstein’s theoryRead MoreThe Atomic Bomb : Manhattan Project1331 Words   |  6 PagesTopic: The Atomic Bomb: Manhattan Project The Manhattan Project was a research and development project that produced the first nuclear weapons during World War II. The Manhattan project was the invention of the first two nuclear bombs, Fat man and little boy. These two bombs were dropped on Japanese islands to end World War II. Math The formula E=MC2 is responsible for the immense power of the Atomic Bomb. E = mc2, equation in German-born physicist Albert Einstein’s theoryRead MoreCause and Effect of World War II880 Words   |  3 PagesWorld War 2 was the biggest war to ever take place in the existence of mankind. without world war 2 our world would not be nearly advanced as it is now, the war caused advances in technology, weaponry, and the most important the atomic bomb. The beginning of WW2 began during 1939, however before this date there had been a few other conflicts in Asia that most people believe actually started the war 2 had one of the biggest influences on how the world functions in todays world. ThereRead MoreThe United States And Japan1345 Words   |  6 Pageswanting to surrender to the United States of America, two bombs were dropped on two cities which were Hiroshima and Nagasaki. There were many reasons why the United States decided to launch their nuclear attack. One of those reasons was that they wanted to end the war and save lives. An invasion would have cost too much and would have had a lot more people killed. Another reason was that the U.S didn’t want another war happening which was going to be Russia vs Japan. They intervened to show how dominantRead MoreThe Nuclear Arms Race : The Cold War Between The United States1621 Words   |  7 PagesStarting in the 1949 with the explosion of an atomic bomb(RDS-1) in Russia and ending with the dissolvement of the Soviet Union, the nuclear arms race was an extremely tense few decades that forever changed the United States in many ways. The Arms Race is exactly what it sounds like; a race to amass more advance we apons. During these four decades, the Nuclear Arms Race affected Americans socially through instilling a variety of emotions ranging from fear, to awe of the power of the nuclear weaponsRead MoreThe Importance Of Technology1088 Words   |  5 Pages First, it was swords and bows and arrows, where only one person could be killed at a time, and it had to be manually done through shooting or stabbing them. Then there were guns which could pierce and hit multiple people, or reload faster than just a bow and arrow. Then there were machine guns and bombs, with the potential to kill hundreds of people or more in a very short amount of time. With the advancement of the bombs, the atomic bomb was eventually created. This destructive bomb leveled entireRead MoreThe Most Effective Foreign Policy As Presidency By Harry S. Truman2516 Words   |  11 Pagespolicy as presidency was Harry S. Truman and the weakest administration for foreign policy was George H. W. Bush. The reason that was the mo re effective president is that he was a more of a powerful leader. Harry S. Truman was a war president. Harry S. Truman was president during one of the worst war in United States history. He was the only president in history to drop atomic bomb. Many people think that Harry S. Truman was one of the best president that would serve and he was elected for 2 terms

Tuesday, May 19, 2020

Tok Essay Art Is a Lie That Brings Us Nearer to the...

TOK ESSAY â€Å"Art is a lie that brings us nearer to the truth† (Pablo Picasso) There are different ways for art to portray elements of truth and lies; but what Picasso was mostly referring to with his quote was that art might be a representation of the truth however lies to the human eye in terms of perception. The word art is somehow â€Å"controversial, especially in contemporary philosophy† because it relies on different AOK’s and WOK’s. The main area of art focused to support Picasso’s quote will be theatre and what philosophical role it plays in our everyday society, do we really need it, and is theatre the true or false image of reality? It is evidently challenging to make any sense out of this quote especially when the truth can†¦show more content†¦It is commonly known that theatre is mostly connected to political or spiritual ideologies. Arthur Miller’s The Crucible, takes a historical fact and turns into a political play based on the Salem witch trials; can the truth be seen in this play? Yes, mostly becaus e of the main historical debate described in the play involving Wiccan cult versus Christianity and it is known to be based on cultural concerns. â€Å"The play can be seen as symbolic of the paranoia about communism that pervaded America in the 1950s† . Thus, Miller’s play on the witch trials in Salem originates from the true events however is projected with false pretenses. Aristotle’s Poetics have six elements for theatre and there are surnamed Plot, Characterization, Idea, Language, Music and Spectacle. These elements represent the keys to a theatre performance, however where is the psychology in that? One theatre genre that can be an absolute opposition to Stanislavsky’s perception of theatre is known as the Theatre of the Absurd. The theatre of the absurd does not follow any guidelines concerning the techniques of theatre, which is why it is a good example because absurdity does not have any true or false, it is a bit chaotic and strange at the same time. BIBLIOGRAPHY: Websites †¢ A Philosophy of Theater  « East of Mina. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Jan. 2011.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Should Minors Be Punished - 864 Words

In today s society, the crime rate is increasing daily. Not only has it increased by adults committing crimes, it has also increased by minors committing violent crimes. The issue of this situation is punishing minors appropriately. Many believe that minors should never be tried as adults while others believe that minors should most definitely be left to be punished for their actions. I believe that minors should be punished as adults according to the crime reasons being, any criminal should have to suffer for the crime, learn from their mistakes, and keep every criminal off the streets. The Juvenile Justice System has become very outdated. Teens have become more advanced. Teens have also become more exposed to criminal activity. There are many kids of have seen many things that the eyes of a child should never have to see. Mary Onelia Estudillo says, â€Å"The juvenile justice system was originally created to provide individualized rehabilitation to offenders of minor crimes such as truancy, shoplifting, and vandalism. But youth today are taking advantage of this lenient and outdated system and are committing violent crimes because they believe they will get off easy.† Most teens are starting to actually believe they’re too young to be punished as adults. These beliefs are causing teens to try anything, no matter how bad of a crime. Teens have started to take advantage of the leniency of the justice system. No criminal should be left in the streets to only continue committingShow MoreRelatedParents And Guardians Responsibility For Their Children’S1729 Words   |  7 Pagesknowledgeable enough to know the price of breaking the law, but still does it either way. Parents or guardians should never be responsible for the crimes committed by their children in any way, unless the parent or guardian is involved or influenced the child to commit the given crime. In 2007, Know Your World Extra, property of Weekly Reader Corporation had a debate if parents should be punished for the crime of their children or not. They stated some pros and cons in both arguments to make people decideRead MoreArgumentative Essay On The Death Penalty989 Words   |  4 Pagesof the death penalty (Gallup). We use this punishment to serve justice for the life of the victim that has been taken. I am in favor of the death penalty and it should be issued in all states for people who commit heinous crimes. The death penalty is constitutional in that it does not violate the Eighth Amendment and an eye for an eye should be deserved. The Supreme Court ruled that the death penalty is not a violation of the 8th Amendment. Criminals do not want to face the consequences for what theyRead MorePutting Juveniles in Juvenile Detention: Does It Help?1082 Words   |  4 PagesIf a ruthless fifteen-year old killed your mother, how would you want the inhumane murderer to be punished? How would you feel if you never got to see your mother alive again while her killer served only a short sentence before being released from jail? Clearly, one would want the worst violent punishment for that murderer to experience. We have to have a system where juveniles, even young juveniles, who commit extremely sophisticated violent criminalities, are not beyond the reach of the law. TrulyRead MoreThe Crime Of The Justice System1482 Words   |  6 Pageswho have done the same crime. A criminal is a criminal that must be punished as no difference between adult and youths if the crimes committed are heinous crimes such as murder and rape. A bullet wound hurts just as much when a child as fires the gun as when an adult fires the gun. Therefore, regardless to age, the youths who commit heinous crimes like murder and rape should be charged as adults and get the punishment as adults should receive. The difference between juvenile court and adult court hasRead MoreFlaws Of The Laws Against Sex Offenders1616 Words   |  7 Pagespreventing the sexual offenses. The main problem with the laws against sex offenders, are the sex offender registries, the registries fail to act as a deterrent for sexual offenses and they encourage vigilante justice. Also, people convicted of a minor sexual offense face harsh punishments and sex offenders face many restrictions. In order to understand why the United States sex offender laws are the way they are, we need to know the story behind on why they were created. In 1993, the Jacob WetterlingRead More old enough to commit crime, too young to do time. Essay1043 Words   |  5 Pages16 and 18 who commit adult crimes should be tried and sentenced as adults. After researching information and cases of minors being tried as adults, I have concluded that if minor offenders were punished in the same degree as adult offenders are, the number of minors committing crimes might be reduced significantly. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;While it is not appropriate for these individuals to be placed in the same facilities as adult offenders, they should receive the same degree of punishmentRead MoreHuman Trafficking : The Second Largest Organized Crime980 Words   |  4 Pagesof the sex trafficking of minors (Eccleston). This can take several forms, including: trafficking, prostitution, sex tourism, mail-order-bride trade, involvement in pornography, stripping, battering, incest, rape, and sexual harassment† (Chase, Elaine and Statham, June). Some of the person(s) involved say that the trafficking of minors helps the economy of the country. Even if this could be proven as true, the fact would be quite disagreeable. The selling of a minor for whatever the purpose orRead MorePros And Cons Of Juvenile Offenders1024 Words   |  5 PagesAdult Criminals? The act of participating in a crime by a minor is considered juvenile delinquency. This criminal act may be punished by many different means, designed specifically to deal with those who are under the statutory age of majority, which is the threshold of adulthood in law. However, many people argue that the severity of the juvenile prosecution system isnt high enough to order proper punishment. Therefore, juvenile offenders should be tried under adult laws. In 1899, the Juvenile CourtRead MoreSchools Should Eliminate the Use of Zero-Tolerance Policies Essay969 Words   |  4 Pagesschool shootings or evidence of increased drug use among teenagers, this stance may seem rational. However, because they often force schools to make unjust decisions and are at the same time ineffective in increasing school discipline, public schools should eliminate the use of policies of zero-tolerance. By definition, zero-tolerance policies are restrictive programs in which a thing is not tolerated in any form or at any level. For example, zero-tolerance programs against violence in schools haveRead MoreJuvenile Delinquency in the United States1585 Words   |  6 PagesUnited States is thoroughly examined. Approximately 1.5 million minors (those are citizens who are under the age of 18) are arrested for criminal activity each year in the US. These juveniles are arrested for a variety of crimes; everything from petty vandalism and loitering to prostitution, drug dealing, and even murder. Of these, 70% of offenders will be tried and sentenced in juvenile courts, but the other 30% will be tried and then punished as though they were adults. A great number of these youths

How Writing Is An Important Person Or Author - 983 Words

I know that writing takes a lot of time to organize and you just don’t get it overnight, no matter how many hours you practice. It take a lot of skills to become good as someone who writes a novel, that’s why you need an important person or author that you like who can help you become a better writer. The grade I think I deserve in this class is a B- because I know I don’t do a lot of participating, my work take a lot of skills to read because nobody have ever taught me to write and I feel my writing is getting better I just need a little push, and I have turned in all my work. Stephen King brought up in his book, even though you got good writing, your grammar and stuff have to be as important to you. Grammar and spelling check is very important because it is what brings your paper together. Things that made me understand writing was when he talked about the toolbox and how everything has its on meaning. In the toolbox he talked about there is a bottom and a top. The bottom was for element of style that you have and the top was for grammar and vocabulary. That made me think of what should be important when I m writing something. Me doing all these responses for In Brief and On Writing have helped me understand the quality of writing and how to make your writing better. In, In Brief I learn that there are so many stories in just one story and everything have his own physical meaning like in Good Workers written by John T. Price it was a piece from a novel calledShow MoreRelatedHow Persuasive Techniques Can Be Important1469 Words   |  6 Pagestechniques. The best way to understand how persuasive techniques can be used to convey a point of view is by reading examples of persuasive writing. The newspaper, particularly in the editorials and opinion pages, is full of examples. This will not only help you keep up with current events, it will also help you develop the language skills necessary to do persuasive writing yourself. Today s lesson objective is: students will be able to determine an author s point of view or purpose within a textRead MoreThe Teachings Of The Buddha Give A Clear View Of What The1260 Words   |  6 PagesThe teachings of the Buddha give a clear view of what the author portrays as the best way to live life, according to the Buddha. Through the passage there is a list of important changes that someone can make in their life to completely eliminate suffering and possibly reach a higher mental state. Some questions that could be answered using this passage include: What was life like for people like the author? What is the purpose for writing these teachings? What was the intended audience? What significanceRead MoreRhetorical Analysis1841 Words   |  7 Pagesrhetorical analysis assignment is to see how an author tries to present his work to a certain group of people. There is present certain meaning in all the texts and it is up to the author to communicate it in the required way. The purpose of this assignment was to review the article and see how the author made use of different strategies. It appears that a major aim that the author had was trying to convince the readers about revenue based financing. The author made use of several strategies as theyRead MoreThe Importance Of Writing And How It Affects How We Live921 Words   |  4 Pages Chapter two of the Language Awareness is about the importance of writing and how it affects how we think and how we live. I found many fascinating information throughout the chapter that has made me become aware of the influence of language, reading and writing.. The authors of book, talked about the steps that one must take to complete a successful written assignment. First the authors discussed about the action needed, then the results received if the steps are done properly. The steps are, firstRead MoreThe Craft And Composition : A Writer Is Crafted By More Than Ability869 Words   |  4 Pagesmany cases it s not about how precise the writer can write, but what the write has to write about. To have tools, but a lack of cause is pointless in writing. Therefore on page 9 in the Craft Composition: A Guide to First Year Writing at Armstrong, the main focus was on a writers mindset rather than their actual ability to write. This is because one can be extremely knowledgeable on how t o write, but the writer must have a connection with the subject or else the person s ability to write can beRead MoreAnalysis Of The Book The Big Reason 907 Words   |  4 PagesAn author has a purpose for writing the many forms of nonfiction. The big reason author’s write nonfiction is to present information to the reader, to inform and to explain; however, they do write to entertain and persuade. Depending on what you are reading depends on what kind of information and how it is written. Here are some different types of nonfiction and the author’s purpose. Keep in mind that a narrative can also be noted as a descriptive writing too; an argument can be descriptive alsoRead MoreDifferent Attitudes And Views Among Generations1422 Words   |  6 Pagesproposal of each author portrays different attitudes and views among generations, each author discusses a similar idea of why each writer is different. Disregarding the audience each author focuses on, the main purpose is to argue whether writing has changed or remained similar through generation. One author believes that technology influenced writing as opposed to two authors who believe it is within the writer itself (authors interest). There is one author who believes that writing has not refinedRead MoreThey Say I Say, By Gerald Graff, Cathy Birkenstein, And Russel Durst1266 Words   |  6 Pagesseen in academic writing. The book thoroughly outlines the different components that make up academic writing, such a s initially summarizing what others have said before, responding with original ideas, proving a purpose to the writing, and connecting the writing in a logical and eloquent manner. The first part of They Say I Say focuses on how to properly introduce what others are saying and stresses the importance of providing context for one’s own argument. The authors explain how the context andRead MoreThe Effects Of Plagiarism1143 Words   |  5 Pagesthe original literature takes on more value within society. Readers want to read new creations of ideas and words from writers instead of seeing them polish the writings that have already been emitted. Writers are able at this moment to earn money with their works and they are entitled to ask for a fine to the one who steals their writings (â€Å"Plagiarism: is plagiarism a serious offense†). This problem can be seen both on a legal and pedagogical level. The pedagogical approach focuses on the qualityRead MoreEveryone Makes Mistakes - But Not in Grammar Essay759 Words   |  4 Pagespiece of writing, in a social network status, or even in a text message those errors will reflect how you are perceived. When writing we always have a purpose and an audience, these two components can help determine the style of writing we should use and how attentive we should be to grammar errors and the correct usage of words. Remembering the 20 most common grammatical errors, having a spell check program, and proofreading can help make your writing effective and innovative. Writing with a purpose

Personal Statement University MBA program Free Essays

It is no more new that the world’s most initiative providers are product of MBA graduate. It is only a man full of vision without direction will continue to aspire achievement from distant without pushing ahead into a reality. In the course of my seven years of experience in finance as well as extensive knowledge in areas of accounting, capital investment analysis, I discovered a huge necessity to study more in business education, and become a certified professional. We will write a custom essay sample on Personal Statement University MBA program or any similar topic only for you Order Now When the choice of institution arises, I have got not to doubt the products of Hamline University from where I also graduated three years ago with evident of commendable testimonies displaced in my work place over the years. From findings, Hamline University’s degree curriculum is such an outstanding one. It is full of current need of a blue chip company who really strives to maintain standard and leverage proficiency among equals. This definitely must have been mapped out from substantive reports of continual research. In line with the aim of the institution, Hamline Uiversity’s MBA program became interesting to attend when Linda Hanson, Hamline President, declares that the program is aimed at producing the best trait in business education that will also radiates an excellent aura of critical thinking skills of a well-educated person. I sincerely believed this is of much important to a leader to put up good leadership skills in the present world where the dare need for one is yet unresolved. I have a vision, a mission coupled with the direction of a platform to fulfill the vision. It is all about becoming a professional in strategic management. While studying Master of Art in Management, courses like Foundations in Management Leadership, Human Resource Management for Business and Managerial Communications most especially sustain the   aged passion to live a carrier in strategic management. With the recent diagnosis of integration insufficiency as the major challenge to MBA programs in Hamline University (Dean Julian Schuster), the new proposition to blend the business education into four 16-week module plus one 16-week specialization session seems promising. Further more, the plan to amalgamate finance, accounting, marketing and operations with leadership development and strategic analysis and ethical practices will help out in the corporate business. The proposed curriculum seems to be a continuation of my exposure during the Master program. I consider it a privilege to be part of the pioneering students of such great plan and bright prospect. A leading industry like Hp Company has a well grounded strategic management as its engine. This is the open secret of success. Strategic management enhances high degree of perfection in harmonizing working-team to work out a target within stipulated expectation. Strategic management is simply the science of drafting, implementing and analyzing decisions from different angles to drive home the objectives of an organization. It involves execution of policies and principles to achieve organizational purpose. It therefore combines the activities of various functional areas of business to achieve unified goal. It is the peak in management carrier performed by the Chief Executive Officer and the designated team(s). With the understanding of the high level of responsibilities and commitments required of my area of interest – strategic management, it is criminal to remain unsecured with the professional skills necessary for good service delivery to humanity and God. I hereby write to continue the mentoring I earlier enjoyed in Hamline University, now in the direction of Master in Business Administration. Your anticipated consideration is appreciated. How to cite Personal Statement University MBA program, Essay examples

Describe the shifts in the world economy over the last 30 years free essay sample

Describe the shifts in the world economy over the last 30 years. What are the implications of these shifts for international businesses based in Britain, North America, and Hong Kong? Although the question is talking the shifts of the world economy over the past 30 years, however, since the end of World War II, global trade has grown faster than global income. Globalization is the trend in these 30 more years because of the technological change. According to the textbook, globalization is defined as the shift toward a more integrated and interdependent world economy. Telecommunication, transportation technology and information transition (including World Wide Web) has been developed rapidly in the past years. These upgrades have made many firms to go globalization. We can see the Evolution of world trade and global gross domestic product in 1981 and in 2010 in the following two diagrams. In 1981, United States (U. S. ) was in dominance in the world trade. She exported products of 12. 3% of the total exports while China exported 1%. However it was changed sharply in 2010. U. S. ’s export decreased from 12. 3% to around 10% while China’s total export was dramatically increased from 1% to nearly 10%. Also, we can find some figures from the textbook Table 1. 2 which showed the demographical change of world Gross domestic product (GDP) and trade. Both of them indicated that U. S. is still in the leadership of export in the world. However, some emerging countries like China, India, and Brazil are continuous growing their economic power. It is optimistically believe China will become the leader of the world’s largest exporter in the future. Another reason for the change is the changing foreign direct investment picture. U. S. firms were the dominance of the foreign direct investment in the 1960s. British firms were the second. It was changed afterwards as the barriers of the free trade of goods, services and capital decreased. Many firms changed their manufacturing and assembling processes to the cheaper cost nations. As a result, the foreign direct investment moves to the developing countries and make their economies grow. Third, there is the changing nature of the multinational enterprises. In the 1960s, U. S. enterprises were the major players of the economy and U. K. firms were the second. However, many enterprises from other nations started to do multination in the following decades. Many of them were come from the developing countries. The rise of medium-size and small-size multinational enterprises was lower down the percentage of U. S. firms’ dominance. The last trend was the changing from Communist world to democratic world in between 1989 and 1991. Many former Communist countries of Europe and Asia were allowed to free trade. Democratic policies made these countries’ economy grow much faster than before. From the data above and in the textbook, U. S. remains the most multinational enterprise now. This implication is similar to the North America and Britain. Britains economy remained strong when it was in the 1960s, but towards the end of the decade this growth began to slow. In the late 1970s, a different economic policy made British companies reverse. It was including changes of tax, company’s ownership, regulation, and industrial relations. Free trade allows goods transaction within the European Union area which benefits the competition of local firms and increases its efficiency and effectiveness later on. As they are developed countries and now the continuous rise of economy growth in the developing countries threaten the U. S. and British firms. Hong Kong is one of the developing nations which has good location for exports, skilled labors and financial services nowadays. But in the 1960s or 1970s, Hong Kong was just a fish port. Manufacturing and textile industries were prosperous at that time. Telecommunication was not so developed and popular. When Hong Kong government gave nine years free education, the overall education level of Hong Kong people was increased. Also, the opening of China markets and the rises of payrolls made the manufacturing and textile industries move out of Hong Kong in the 1970s. From the technologies and financial services rise, Hong Kong becomes an international financial center. It attracts foreign capital investment to invest in Hong Kong and make it to enter one of the l00 largest multinational enterprises. 2 What is the relationship between corruption in a country (i. e. , bribe-taking by government officials) and economic growth? Is corruption always bad? Q2: Corruption is all around the world. In most developed countries, corruption is low level because there are strict laws and corruption is treated as illegal. But in many developing countries, corruption is like a kind of culture. There are several reasons for corruption, e. g. trade restriction, bad regulations, government subsidies, price controls by the government, multiple exchange rate, low salaries of civil servants, natural resource factors and sociological factors. Many of them are happened in the third world. At a result, many firms would like to bribe government officials to let their businesses smooth. In the short run, this kind of action can increase the economy growth. When the firms grow, lesser corruption occurs. From many studies by Economists in the world throughout the past decades, they always say that corruption and the economy growth is not linear relationship and hardly measure. Heckelman Powell (2008) quoted by Giorgi Mekerishvili, if the government is big enough and has good control on regulation and bureaucratic burdens, the corruption has a good effect on economic growth. By practical experience, corruption can improve growth by allowing firms to pay money to prevent inefficient regulations and bureaucratic put off. It also can shorten the time for processing. In the working environment, time means money. Therefore, many firms would like to use money for shorten the processing time and conflict. As a result, the whole transaction will be more efficient and competitive. Corruption in an international level is also giving a help. For example, a company needs to transport goods from one country to another country. If the company pays bribes, the transportation time will be shortened a lot and can meet the tight schedule. It is very important for a company to deliver goods to his customers on time. In the short run, we can say that a bit of corruption is not harm to the economic growth. However, one of the Economists, Paolo Mauro (1995 and 1997) who thinks that corruption affects investment and economic growth. There is new evidence on the relationship between corruption and the components of government expenditure. On his findings, a significant occurrence is management of a firm treats corruption is a must when they want to start a business. Then the total cost of operating a business increases. The attractiveness of investment will then be a concern and may be lesser investment occurs. Even reduce the attractiveness of foreign direct investment. In the long term, the corruption affects the general economic growth. In addition, bribes through some large infrastructure and public services will lower the quality. Corruption is difficult to stop as governments need to figure out effective ways to combat it. According to the findings of Mauro, if government of the country has anti-corruption campaign can benefit the economic growth: â€Å"†¦A country that improves its standing on the corruption index, say, 6 to 8, (0 being the most corrupt, 10 the least) will experience a 4 percentage point increase in its investment rate and a 0,5 percentage point increase in its annual GDP growth rate. † (Mauro, 1998). On the other hand, many economic researchers found that the more corruption occurs, the less foreign direct investment. And therefore, economic growth reduces. In the textbook, the author gave an example – Corruption in the Philippines. In the example, The United Nations Development Programme estimates that over 10% of the Philippines’ annual budget is lost because of corruption. Many foreign investors are not willing to invest in the serious corrupted country. The issue affects the whole investment and reduces the Gross Domestic Product (GDF) growth. In conclusion, corruption is not encouraged but for some special reasons, corruption is unavoidable and it is a good help for urgent case. 3 The world’s poorest countries are at a competitive disadvantage in every sector of their economies. They have little to export. They have no capital; their land is of poor quality; they often have too many people given available work opportunities; and they are poorly educated. Free trade cannot possibly be in the interests of such nations! Discuss. Q3: From the Trade liberalization statistics from WTO, it said, â€Å"Trade liberalization is negatively correlated with income growth among the poorest 40 per cent of the population, but positively correlated with income growth among higher income groups. In other words, it helps the rich get richer and the poor get poorer. (Lundberg and Squire, Inequality and Growth; Lessons for Policy, World Bank 1999, Chapter 3. )† Is it really free trade not helping the poorest countries? We will try to find out in the following analysis from different researchers. Firstly, government should focus on infrastructure, industry segmentation and technology competence, regulations and education. New jobs will be created when the government builds roads, factories and buildings. These constructions need many labors. Employment rate will then be increased. If citizens do not believe their government, it is no use for the improvement. The political issue is also another factor to affect the growth of the economy in a poor country. Those cities or countries are always in rebellion and no investors would like to invest in these cities or countries. The economies must be poor. Also, many children do not have a change to study and they work outside so early that they do not have knowledge on high technology, skilled technique. Low level of education makes the countries lack of comparative and affect the whole economy growth. Government intervention is a way to help the local firms when free trade opens. Government may use tariffs and subsidies to protect the domestic firms to compete with foreign companies. Tariffs and import quotas are normally applied and it reduces many foreign firms to do business and local firms can increase their dominance in a specific industry. After some years when the local firms are big enough and can increase their efficiencies and productivities, government could then reduce tariff barriers and subsidies. These firms may expand their exports to other markets and go globalization. As a result, free trade helps those strong firms to depart from poverty. At reverse, weak firms will be bankrupted. Also, WTO or EU helps the developing countries by reducing export tariffs or even duty free to other member countries. The firms can have a better profit by exporting various products and then increase their market shares. When tariffs decrease, more firms can also be benefited by importing various cheap raw materials or products to produce new types of goods. These goods will then be able to export to other countries and increase the market share and revenues. Eventually the growth of the economy increases the percentage of employment and earnings opportunities. There was a statistic showing that the economic growth and capital income were increased by free trade in the developing countries from 1970s to 2010s because foreign firms can use cheaper cost to access the developing countries. Researcher gives an example of Vietnam and Mexico. Both countries can increase exports to developed countries like United State. However, researcher points out that not everyone can benefit from free trade. It is varied depends on geography, nature of trade change. Researcher also points out that firms go globalization creates global standardization. We all know is called ISO. The firms in developing countries may not be able to fulfill that standard. The reasons are lack of human and technological ability. On the other hand, researcher thinks that the high standard can push those firms to improve their productivities, technologies, quality of goods and services as well as environmental standards. Others who cannot do it will downsize or even bankrupt. 4 Given the arguments relating to the new trade theory and strategic trade policy, what kind of trade policy should business be pressuring government to adopt? Q4. From the textbook, New Trade Theory has two main concepts which are economies of scale and first-mover advantages. As if domestic demand and the market of a country are small, firms may not produce a large volume of products to consumers to choose. And the price will be high since the cost of production is high. If more countries trade with each other, the demand will increase and may be large enough for producers to produce more products and thus attain economies of scale. Economies of scale mean a firm uses the same resources to produce a large number of products and reduce the cost. Government should negotiate or ally with other neighbor countries to free trade. After increasing the trade among countries, the variety of products would then be increased as well. The average cost of each product is thus lower and eventually increases the revenues of income. In addition, when the government helps the local firms to compete the economic scale, there should have enough related and support industries as well. This is a simple relationship. If local firms would like to increase their production, they have to buy more raw materials or semi-products for production. After finishing the products, they have to move to the sales place. The transportation network is very important for firms to transfer to its customers efficiently. The second point in the New Trade Theory is the first-mover advantage. Since the firms in the domestic industry treat economies of scale as a major factor, the firms need to get it by increasing the demands for production and exporting the products to other markets. The firms have to understand the customers’ expectation first. They have to consider whether the customers are well educated or living in high standards. In order to gain the pool of a larger market, the firms need to create competitive advantage on their products which are innovative and good quality. When the firms export them to other markets, these will expand the whole markets to a single market. If there is no other firms have the same features, the firms can get the first-mover advantage. Mostly the successful firms are lucky and their products are innovative in the new market. Many economists argue that the new trade theory create government intervention. From the textbook, some local firms in the developing countries are not large enough to operate by themselves. They need government’s help to maintain their comparative advantage and maintain their place in the industry. In this connection, government should help small firms by adapting control import quotas, tariffs, giving subsidies on especially technology as it is difficult for competitors to copy or prevent new entrants. There are several types of import quota to be used by the government. First, government controls on exactly how much of quotas to be imported. Fewer quotas of imports have fewer choices for consumers to choose. Consumers can only buy the local firms’ products and lastly increase their revenues. Second, government does voluntary not export so much to other countries. This also led the consumers to buy more local products than foreign products. Government may ask local firms to join together to do RD. When these firms successfully create new, innovate high technology products, they can get more market share. Some governments would use administration policies like anti-dumping policy to restrict the firms to sell products too cheap. These policies help domestic firms gain comparative advantage to foreign firms. In conclusion, when the small firms grow enough to get the first mover advantage and enter into the world market, the government can reduce its support and let the firms to overcome the short-term loss. Eventually, the economic growth will be increased.