Tuesday, December 31, 2019

The New Deal The Depression Years by Anthony Badger

Badger, Anthony J. .The New Deal: The Depression Years, 1933- 1940. 1989. Reprint. Chicago : Ivan R. Dee, 2002. Print. The New Deal era is often cited as the time when the federal government began to assume its modern form. It was a time of unprecedented government intervention and in many ways changed the way Americans viewed government. After the Stock Market Crash of 1929, it was clear that the government was going to take immediate action. Anthony Badger’s The New Deal: The Depression Years, 1933-1940 is an outstanding summary of some of the most difficult, yet important, years in American history. A frustrating factor of this book is that Badger doesn’t use footnotes, even with direct quotes. Instead he refers to specific authors, newspapers, and other works within the book. This loss is aided by his lengthy bibliographic essay and a list of abbreviations used within the book and their meanings. This list helps because it clarifies the specific organizations and gr oups used in the book. Within the book, Badger manages to mix together a number of different interpretations to present an account of both the New Deal and its historiography. Badger proposes a comparison of the reforms instituted and their unanticipated consequences. Many of these were the exact opposite of what the New Deal proposed, for example, the stronger establishment of big corporations, urban sprawl rather than revived inner cities, weak labor laws, and others. He initially discusses that hisShow MoreRelatedThe Global War to the Great Depression627 Words   |  2 Pagesled to an equally heinous economic recession, triggering global fear and lack of guidance. World leaders stood to the challenge of mending the shattered 100 year peace and economy in Europe. America, it seemed, desired no part in this scramble for order, turning its back to the international world. Through the Great War to the Great Depression, the transforming world not only caused America to withdraw from the world, but also allowed Franklin Delano Roosevelt an opportunity to refine all aspectsRead MoreEssay on The New Deals Failure to Aid African Americans5224 Words   |  21 PagesThe New Deals Failure to Aid African Americans President Roosevelts New Deal program during the 1930s failed to aid impoverished African-American citizens. The New Deal followed a long, historical chronology of American failures in attempts to ensure economic prosperity and racial equality. During the nearly seventy years after the conclusion of the Civil War, the United States faced a series of economic depressions, unmotivated Congress, and a series of mediocre presidents. With the exceptionRead MorePresident Franklin Delano Roosevelt - A Great Leader Essay2347 Words   |  10 Pageswas born in New York on January 30th in 1882. His family was from wealthy New Yorkers on both sides. Groton boarding school and his â€Å"private tutors provided him with almost all his formative education† (Biography of Franklin D. Roosevelt). After general schooling he attended Harvard University and achieved a Bachelor’s degree within only three years. While at Harvard he met Eleanor, who would be influential in his life and presi dency for many years. Columbia Law School only lasted 3 years because he

Sunday, December 22, 2019

The Narrative Of The Life Of Frederick Douglass - 2776 Words

The Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass perfectly depicts the dreadful experience of living in slavery. From being unsure of the day he was born, to his first beating from a master, to the brutal and exhausting work, and to the joyous day he was freed. Besides describing his experience as a slave, he describes the toll slavery had on the masters and families of slaves. Frederick Douglass also includes his view of education in relation to freedom. The Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass is a good excerpt from The Classic Slave Narratives that can be considered a good historical resource due to the historical content it provides about slavery. Frederick Douglass gave countless examples of the effect that slavery had on the slaves, as well as on the masters. One specific example of how slavery has an effect on the masters is Sophia Auld. Sophia had never owned a slave before Frederick . Douglass described Sophia as â€Å"a woman with the kindest heart and finest feel ings.† Before owning a slave, she was the nicest person he had ever come across. She began to teach him the alphabet and how to read. Eventually, Mr. Auld found out and forbade her to teach him. Unfortunately, the concept of slavery changed Sophia. Instead of being the nicest woman, she began watching Frederick closer and treating him worse. She would watch him to make sure he did not have anything in his possession to aid him in learning to read; it outraged her when she would see Douglass with aShow MoreRelatedNarrative Of The Life Of Frederick Douglass987 Words   |  4 PagesLife of Frederick In the â€Å"narrative of the life of Frederick Douglass an American slave written by himself† Frederick reveled to audience the time he was living as a slave and the moments of brutal treats for example psychological, emotional and physical abuses. He was suffering terrible moments during his 20 years as a slave in the twentieth century. In addition, he describes in his own words the strategies he used to escape from the slave holders and to be free. This story the â€Å"Narrative of theRead MoreNarrative Of The Life Of Frederick Douglass1730 Words   |  7 PagesOne of the most well-known slavery narratives was lived and written by Frederick Douglass, Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass. Frederick Douglass was a civil rights activist who was born into slavery on a plantation in eastern Maryland in February 1818. His exact birth date is unknown, he states in his narrative, â€Å"I have no accurate knowledge of my age, never having seen any authentic record containing it.†2 His birth name was Frederick Augustus Washington Bailey, which was given by hisRead MoreNarrative Of The Life Of Frederick Douglass Essay1102 Words   |  5 PagesDate Narrative Of The Life Of Frederick Douglass Writing in the favor of black people has always remained controversial from the very beginning. Critics regard such writing as â€Å"a highly conventionalized genre† indicating that â€Å"its status as literature was long disputed but the literary merits of its most famous example such as Frederick Douglass s Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass†¦are widely recognized today.† (Ryan:537) Despite of such severe resistance, writers like Douglass have pennedRead MoreThe Narrative Of The Life Of Frederick Douglass1566 Words   |  7 PagesThe â€Å"Narratives of the Life of Frederick Douglass† is the story of Frederick Douglass’ life from the time he was born into slavery, to the time he escaped to freedom in the north. When Douglass wrote this book, slavery was still legal in a large portion of the United States. After Douglass’ escape to freedom and his continuation of his education, he became an abolitionist through his works of literatu re and speeches. In â€Å"The Blessings of Slavery†, by George Fitzhugh he states that southern slavesRead MoreNarrative Of The Life Of Frederick Douglass1257 Words   |  6 PagesBook Review By Mary Elizabeth Ralls Narrative of the life of Frederick Douglass: An autobiography written by Frederick Douglass Millennium publication, 1945edition 75 pages Frederick Douglass whose real name was Frederick Augustus Washington Bailey approximately birthdate is in1818, the month or day is not known, he died in 1895. He is one of the most famous advocates and the greatest leaders of anti-slavery in the past 200 or so years.Read MoreNarrative Of The Life Of Frederick Douglass Essay1498 Words   |  6 Pagessoutherners believed that one of the most essential means of life was slavery. In the novel, Narrative of The Life of Frederick Douglass, Douglass challenges and debunks the idea of slavery being a necessary part of the white lifestyle; many pro-slavery arguments consisted of religion justifying slavery, slaves being â€Å"easily manipulated†/ignorant, and slavery keeping the southern economy from disappearing (The Proslavery Argument). Frederick uses personal experiences and other tactics to expose theRead MoreThe Narrative Of The Life Of Frederick Douglass1363 Words   |  6 Pages In The Narrative of the Life of Frederic k Douglass, Frederick Douglass portrays the importance of education because of its influence in leveling the playing field between the races in the 1800s. Education and knowledge are themes that are heavily dwelled upon throughout the novel, inspiring the reader to see the full power of such important ideals and to take the full advantage of both at all times. Douglass gives the reader a new appreciation for education as he delivers his message regardingRead MoreThe Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass1527 Words   |  7 Pagesconsidered â€Å"property† of their slaveholders and had no control over their own life. They were victims of psychological and physical brutal treatment. This story represents confinement, slavery and the lack of power African people had in such a racist society back in those days. African talents were absolutely wasted and they were considered inferior to white individuals. The â€Å"Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass† sim ply addresses that white society was causing negative effects to itself andRead MoreNarrative Of The Life Of Frederick Douglass1255 Words   |  6 PagesFrederick Douglass, throughout Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, uses religion to get many of his points across. In one way, religion plays a huge role in Douglass’ ability to become literate throughout the text. With the Bible and other Christian texts, Douglass is able to further his ability and the ability of others to read. This becomes important because as Douglass points out the slaveholders believe a literate slave is not a good slave. This union of literacy and religion show theRead MoreNarrative Of Life Of Frederick Douglass1271 Words   |  6 Pagesof many famous quotes by Frederick Douglass that illustrates that no dream or hope can be achieved without any action. In his autobiography Narrative of Life of Frederick Douglass, he outlines his life as a slave and his journey towards freedom through his de sire for education. In Narrative of Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave, the story expresses repression that slaves experienced through Douglass’s related experiences as a slave. The obstacles that Douglass conquers to achieve his education

Saturday, December 14, 2019

Death Of A Salesman †Play Review Free Essays

The play Death of a salesman is written by Arthur Miller. It is a massively touching play all about a man constantly chasing the American dream. The Sympathy the audience begins to feel for Willy Loman is shown by the way we feel about him at the end of this play. We will write a custom essay sample on Death Of A Salesman – Play Review or any similar topic only for you Order Now This is truly an amazing play written the talented Arthur Miller. We start the play seeing Willy Loman, his two sons and wife at their home as Willy arrives home from a hard days selling, at least this is what he leads Linda, his wife, into thinking. We join the play at the beginning of his failure. We see his get progressively disheartened and borrows money from his neighbour, Charley, and has convinced himself he will eventually be in the position to repay him, although as the audience we can see that this is highly unlikely. Our sympathy for Willy fades gradually as we realise he doesn’t seem to help himself. We get increasingly annoyed with Willy chasing the American dream; we see he does not accept help as when Charley offers him a job, after Willy is fired from his company. Willy gets extremely offended by this and gets angry wit Charley for insulting his ability to regain his job. Both Charley and Willy now that Charley will never see his money again, and the fact that Charley offers Willy a chance to get his life back on track and Willy refuses makes us feel that Willy is almost lazy and seems unfazed by his situation. The fact that Willy had an affair makes us feel sorry for Linda and as an audience we feel like Willy deserves all he gets, but we see the way it affects the whole family and when biff and happy both try to get jobs and fail we see that the effort Willy put in with both of them when they were younger has made almost no difference to them. They may have been better of if Willy, like Charley, had just left them to it. Bernard who is Charley’s son is extremely successful but never boasts, the main difference between the two sets of sons its that both Biff and Happy find it necessary to boast non stop, it seems, and Bernard is more laid back and tends not to make a big deal of the fact he can play tennis at a friends house. Willy treats Linda badly, always starting fights and just generally making little digs. The only time we see a mixture of love, anger and guiltiness on Willy’s part is when Linda is mending her stockings and he remembers that he gave a pair to ‘the women’ and he seems to get a pang of guilt and therefore tells Linda to take off the stockings. The main problem in Willy’s life is money, but it seems he would rather scrounge of people like Charley than get a real job, like the one Charley offers him. He plays an act when it comes to money as he lies to his family, especially Linda. He wants everyone to think he is rich and successful but really he is unsuccessful and becoming increasingly poor. Overall this play in touching and also infuriating, we find ourselves getting angry and points in the play, when we see Willy lying to friends and family it seems that the only person he is true to is Charley and that’s only to try and get money and sympathy from him. We feel extremely sorry for Willy and his family, especially Linda when noone turns up to Willy’s funeral. This seems like the almost perfect end to realistic play. When we see the full picture of Willy’s affair we become almost at one with Linda and tend to feel the same emotions as her, but mostly anger. How to cite Death Of A Salesman – Play Review, Papers

Friday, December 6, 2019

Microeconomics Elasticity Concept - Click to know Solution

Questions: 1. What is the midpoint method for calculating price elasticity of demand? How else can the price elasticity of demand be calculated? What is the advantage of the midpoint formula? 2. What are the key determinants of the price elasticity of demand for a product? What determinant is the most important? 3. In 2003, when music downloading first took off, Universal Music slashed the average price of a CD from $21 to $15. The company expected the price cut to boost the quantity of CDs sold by 30 per cent, other things remaining the same.What was Universal Musics estimate of the price elasticity of demand for CDs?If you were making the pricing decision at Universal Music, what would be your pricing decision? Explain your decision. 4. In May 2009, iTunes raised the price of 33 songs from 99 per download to $1.29 per download. In the week following the price rise, the quantity of downloads of these 33 songs fell 35 per cent. Taking this into account calculate the price elasticity of demand for these 33 songs. 5. A 5 per cent fall in the price of chocolate sauce increases the quantity of chocolate sauce demanded by 10 per cent; and with no change in the price of ice cream, the quantity of ice cream demanded increases by 15 per cent.Calculate the price elasticity of demand for chocolate sauce.Calculate the cross elasticity of demand for ice cream with respect to the price of chocolate sauce.Are ice cream and chocolate sauce substitutes or complements? Why? Answers: 1. The midpoint formula is used in calculating the arc elasticity. It gives the elasticity of one variable with respect to another variable between two points situated in the demand curve. The formula for price elasticity of demand is ((Q2-Q1) / ((Q2+Q1) / 2)) / ((P2-P1) / ((P2+P1) / 2)). Figure 1: Two points on the demand curve for calculating mid point arc elasticity. Source: As created by the author. In the figure above, P1 and Q1 are the initial level of price and quantity in the demand curve. Similarly, P2 and Q2 are the next level of price and quantity, which comes due to the change in price and commodity. According to Nelson (2013), the midpoint elasticity is calculated from these two points. It is calculated by dividing the variable by the midpoint value. The other ways of calculating the price elasticity of demand are: Total expenditure Method Revenue Method Point Elasticity of Demand Proportionate method According to Mankiw (2013), the advantage of using the midpoint formula is that wherever the two points on the demand curve might be, that does not affect the value of the price elasticity of a products demand. The points can be situated at any places of the demand curve, but the value will remain unaffected. According to Baumol and Blinder (2015), instead of taking the starting points in the curve, it is calculated by dividing the variable by the midpoint values. This makes the mid-point elasticity method more reliable than the other methods. 2. The key determinants of the price elasticity of demand for a product are as follows: The type of the commodity determines the price elasticity. A necessary good does not show the same price elasticity value as a luxury good. As stated by Wang (2016), the substitute goods available for a commodity determine the price elasticity of a good. If the good can be easily substituted by other goods, then price elasticity will be closer to one. If the available substitutes are less numbered, the price elasticity will be closer to zero, as the good cannot be replaced by other commodities during an increase in price. The duration of the change of price also plays a key determining role for the price elasticity of demand for the good. In the case of a long time of increased price, the consumers will prefer using the substitute goods. Importance of a commodity to the consumers is a key determinant of the price elasticity of demand for a product. As stated by Varian (2014), a necessary good is always more important to a consumer than a luxury good. Consumers level of income also determines the price elasticity of demand. If a consumer have low income level, then an increase in price will affect his demand pattern and he will shift to a substitute good. On the other hand, if the consumers income is high, he will be less affected by the change in price. Brand loyalty of the consumers also plays an important role here. A loyal consumer will stick to the good, even when a change in price occurs. 3. The quantity demanded has been changed by 30 percent or 3/10. The price has been changed by $21 - $15 = $6. Hence, the percent change in price is (15-21) / [1/2 (15 + 21)] = 1/3. Now the price elasticity of demand is Ed. Ed = {(Q1-Q2) / [1/2 (Q1+Q2)]} / {(P1-P2) / [1/2 (P1 + P2)]}. Here, Q1 is the initial quantity with P1 being the initial price. Q2 is the new level of quantity and P2 is the new level of price. Now putting the respective values, Ed becomes Ed = (3/10) / (1/3) = 9 / 10 = 0.9. Here the Ed is less than 1. Hence, the demand is inelastic. This shows the change in price has no effect on the demand of CDs of Universal Music. According to Toutkoushian and Paulsen (2016), this can be caused by Veblen effect or brand loyalty. Hence, the price decision can be in the favour of the company, where the company can increase the price, but due to the inelastic demand curve, the demand for the CDs of Universal Music remains the same. This way, the increased price level will only mean more revenue. 4. iTunes increased the price of 33 songs in the May of 2009. The price increased from 99 per download to $1.29 per download. Hence, the change in the price level of per download of 33 songs is as follows ($1.29-$0.99) = $ 0.3. This means, the total change in the level of price was (33*0.3) = $9.9. Therefore, the percentage change in the level of price per download was Pd = (P1-P2) / [1/2 (P1 + P2)]. Here, P1 and P2 are the initial and changed level of price. Pd = ($0.99-$1.29) / [(1/2)*($0.99 + $1.29)], or 0.2632. The percentage change in quantity demanded for all 33 songs are given by 35% = 35/100 = 0.35. Hence, the price elasticity of demand Ed for the songs is = {(Q1-Q2) / [1/2 (Q1+Q2)]} / {(P1-P2) / [1/2 (P1 + P2)]}. Putting the values in Ed, the elasticity can derived as, 0.35/0.2632 = 1.3. As stated by Gordon, Goldfarb and Li (2013), here, the price elasticity of demand is greater than 1. This means the demand for the 33 songs are elastic. Hence, an increase in the price level will result in decrease in the quantity demanded and vice versa. According to Cavalli and Naimzada (2015), this follows the basic law of demand, which states that an increase in the price will cause a decrease in the quantity demanded of a good, assuming all other things remaining constant. 5. Given that, 5 per cent fall in the price of chocolate sauce increases the quantity of chocolate sauce demanded by 10 per cent. Hence, own price elasticity for chocolate sauce is as given below: Price Elasticity of demand is given by = = 10% / 5% = 2. The price elasticity for demand of chocolate sauce is 2, which is greater than 1, i.e. Ed 1. Hence, it is elastic. As stated by Thimmapuram and Kim (2013), now any decrease in the price level will increase the demand, and an increase in the price level of the good will decrease the demand for chocolate sauce. The cross price elasticity of a product is as given by: = 15% / 5% = 3 Therefore, the cross price elasticity for ice cream is 3, which is greater than 1. Hence, the ice cream is elastic with respect to the price of chocolate sauce. According to Rios, McConnell and Brue (2013), that means a fall in the price of the chocolate sauce will increase the demand for the ice cream, and vice versa. This only makes ice cream and chocolate sauce complements. The reason behind this scenario is chocolate sauce is used with ice cream. It improves the taste of the ice cream. Hence, makes it a complementary product for ice cream. References: Baumol, W.J. and Blinder, A.S., 2015. Microeconomics: Principles and policy. Cengage Learning. Cavalli, F. and Naimzada, A., 2015. Effect of price elasticity of demand in monopolies with gradient adjustment. Chaos, Solitons Fractals, 76, pp.47-55. Gordon, B.R., Goldfarb, A. and Li, Y., 2013. Does price elasticity vary with economic growth? A cross-category analysis. Journal of Marketing Research, 50(1), pp.4-23. Mankiw, N.G., 2013. Elasticity and its Application Nelson, J.P., 2013. Meta-analysis of alcohol price and income elasticitieswith corrections for publication bias.Health economics review,3(1), pp.1-10. Rios, M.C., McConnell, C.R. and Brue, S.L., 2013. Economics: Principles, problems, and policies. McGraw-Hill. Thimmapuram, P.R. and Kim, J., 2013. Consumers' price elasticity of demand modeling with economic effects on electricity markets using an agent-based model. IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, 4(1), pp.390-397. Toutkoushian, R.K. and Paulsen, M.B., 2016. Demand and Supply in Higher Education. InEconomics of Higher Education(pp. 149-198). Springer Netherlands. Varian, H.R., 2014. Intermediate Microeconomics: A Modern Approach: Ninth International Student Edition. WW Norton Company Thirlwall, A.P., 2014. The balance of payments constraint as an explanation of the international growth rate differences.PSL Quarterly Review,32(128). Wang, S., 2016. Microeconomic Theory (Book). Browser Download This Paper.

Friday, November 29, 2019

The Diagnosis of Mood Disorders free essay sample

A discussion of bi-polar and depressive disorders, their symptoms and treatment. This paper discusses how important the proper diagnosis of a patients mood disorder is for finding the proper treatment. Disorders covered include: major depressive disorder, dysthymic disorder, cyclothymic, bi-polar I, and bi-polar II. The author shows how the disorders are broken down into domains and indicates the symptoms for each and how they should be treated. Bi-polar disorder affects approximately 2.3 million American adults or about 1.2 percent of the U.S. population age 18 and older (Reiger, 1993). Men and women are equally likely to develop bi-polar disorder. The average age of onset for bi-polar disorders is in the early twenties (American Psychiatric Association, 1994). Bi-polar disorders include cyclothymic, bi-polar I, and bi-polar II. Distinction of the actual disorder can sometimes become difficult, therefore, it is crucial to look at all the symptoms the patient is experiencing.

Monday, November 25, 2019

How to Build an ESL Class Curriculum

How to Build an ESL Class Curriculum Heres a guide on how to create an ESL class curriculum to ensure your students meet their learning objectives. Certainly, planning the curriculum of a new ESL/EFL class can be a challenge. This task can be simplified by following these basic principles. First and foremost, teachers should always perform a student needs analysis in order to ensure that you understand what type of learning materials will be appropriate for your classroom. How to Build an ESL Curriculum Evaluate students learning levels - are they similar or mixed? You can:Give a standard grammar test.Arrange students into small groups and provide a get to know you activity. Pay close attention to whos leading the group and who is having difficulties.Ask students to introduce themselves. Once finished, ask each student a few follow-up questions to see how they handle impromptu speech.Evaluate nationality makeup of class - are they all from the same country or a multi-national group?Establish primary goals based on your schools overall learning objectives.  Investigate the various student learning styles - what type of learning do they feel comfortable with?Find out how important a specific type of English (i.e. British or American, etc.) is to the class.Ask students what they perceive as being most important about this learning experience.Establish the extra-curricular goals of the class (i.e. do they want English only for travel?).Base English learning materials on vocabulary are as that meet students needs. For example, if students plan on attending university, focus on building academic vocabulary. On the other hand, if students belong are part of a company, research materials that are related to their place of work. Encourage students to provide examples of English learning materials they find interesting.As a class, discuss which type of media students feel most comfortable with. If students are not used to reading, you may want to focus on using online video materials.  Take time to investigate what teaching materials are available to meet these goals. Do they meet your needs? Are you limited in your choice? What kind of access do you have to authentic materials?Be realistic and then cut your goals back by about 30% - you can always expand as the class continues.Establish a number of intermediate goals.Communicate your overall learning goals to the class. You can do this by providing a printed curriculum. However, keep your curriculum very general and leave room for change.Let students know how they are progressing so there are no surprises!Always be prepared to change your curriculum goals during your course.   Effective Curriculum Tips Having a map of where you want to go can really help with a number of issues such as motivation, lesson planning, and overall class satisfaction.Despite the need for a curriculum, make sure that achieving learning goals in the curriculum dont become more important than the learning that will take place.  Time spent thinking about these issues is an excellent investment that will pay itself back many times over not only in terms of satisfaction but also in terms of saving time.Remember that each class is different - even if they do seem alike.Take your own enjoyment and focus into consideration. The more you enjoy teaching the class, the more students will be willing to follow your lead.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Connotation Impromptu Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Connotation Impromptu - Essay Example The Lexus target market ranges for people around the age of forty, with a strong household salary. The luxury market back in 1989 had Lexus brands sell around 25,000 cars in hope of achieving a target of 65,000 cars. With the main rivals of Lexus being brands such as Mercedes Benz, the target market of majority of its brands is well-off customers (Anurit, Newman, And Chansarkar, 2006, p. 15). The choice of target market made by Ford while manufacturing the escort brand revolves around the model of product life sequence. This choice has an impact on its advertising and pricing strategies through marketing mix (University of southern California, 2010). Since Ford Escort is a commodity model of this specific industry, its price and mode of promotion is defined by the targeted market, breaking down the promotion procedures into stages. These stages have been used by Ford to realize the standard income made the youthful market and be able to set prices for the escort model. The choice of target market affected the pricing and advertising strategies of the Lexus vehicle brands through product positioning. Unlike Ford, Lexus fixed its models right before customers who could find them affordable, instead of directly looking the customers. Lexus believed their brand would sell in terms of benefits that can be offered to customers through new ways. This way, Lexus could always be affiliated with luxury living, creating a standard means of living able to be felt and understood by its customers. The image of Ford has been tarnished after the economic downturn began in the European market. As a result, its market will only stand to widen should the company make changes in its financial structure. Ford Escort buyers mainly comprise of youthful individuals without a strong household salary. Therefore, changes in the economy will definitely affect their choice of purchasing the brand,

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Establishing a Learning Community Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Establishing a Learning Community - Essay Example onger the world they have known; that the nation, and indeed the world, is undergoing deep and ever-accelerating changes; and that even the community or neighborhood in which they live no longer offers the comfort of continuity. One need only meet disadvantaged minority individuals, without the skills or abilities to participate in a society that does not recognize them, or elderly citizens, attempting to live in an environment they do not understand, to find people who have already lost most meaningful relationships with society. (Barge, 2003) They and many others in our communities are in such precarious positions because they are no longer able to cope with a changing environment. Change, accelerated by technological development, is affecting individuals and organizations at a rate never before experienced in the history of mankind. When life was simpler, one generation could pass along to the next what it needed to know to get along in the world; tomorrow was simply a repeat of yesterday. Individuals must now live in several different worlds during their lifetimes. (Kress, 2006) A new civilization is upon us, and it will reshape the whole nations character. A variety of forces quickens the pace of change. Americans will have to greatly increase the occupational mobility; a rise in the knowledge industries has to take place; computerized wireless hookups will be used by businesses, industries, and government agencies; people will have more leisure time, and jobs will be more customized. While some of the forces will be quite disruptive, others will offer opportunities to strengthen social and economic fabrics. (Sivers, 2003) Who would have believed that the doomsayers of the 1950s and 1960s were right about the rapid decline of natural resources and the explosion of population? America is truly and surely a country in crisis. America is convulsed by urban violence, illiteracy, homelessness, high deficits, unemployment, an increasing disparity between the

Monday, November 18, 2019

Smoking Cessation Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Smoking Cessation - Essay Example It is a significant factor in three out of the five leading death causes in the US – cancer, heart disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (Berndt et al., 2011). Nicotine is the addictive drug in tobacco. To curb these negative effects of smoking, cessation programs have to be promoted. Rice, Hartmann-Boyce and Stead (2013) define smoking cessation as the discontinuation of use of cigars, pipes and cigarettes. Smoking cessation reduces the risk of suffering from lung cancer and smokers who quit cause a reduction in their mortality ratio to 1.20 in a span of 10 years of non-smoking. The nursing process provides a systematic framework in provision of professional and quality nursing care in smoking cessation (Maurer & Smith, 2013). It directs activities on smoking cessation towards health promotion and protection and prevention of associated diseases. After assessing the collected data on smoking problems from a community, it would be important for nurses to diagnose t he data. According to Maurer and Smith (2013), this involves the analysis and synthesis of the assessed data in response to potential or actual health problems associated with smoking. Rice et al. (2013) observe that this stage involves the determination of ineffective health management resulting from smoking. It also encompasses the determination of lack of information on smoking and its effects in the community. Having identified the smoking problem, nurses plan how to execute the smoking cessation plan so as to achieve the intended goals (Maurer & Smith, 2013). Planning involves setting of goals. It encompasses aiming at the patient demonstrating maintenance of more effective health patterns. The patient should openly discuss the problems faced due to smoking and the benefits that cessation would offer. Nurses should also aim at keeping the patient free from being injured during the smoking cessation treatment. The intervention phase involves the nurse’s role of care for p atients manifesting smoking related problems. This should meet the needs of the patient and develop a cessation relationship that teaches on smoking and the effect on an individual, family and community as a whole. Nurses should organize for seminars, trainings and community education on smoking and the related lifestyle and assist in the development of a comprehensive care plan (Maurer & Smith, 2013). Health promotion partnerships would be used for strengthening social networks and developing smoking cessation support and influence policies. Thus, intervention generally involves maximization of therapeutic plans and minimization of factors that encourage smoking habits. The third phase would encompass executing the appropriate intervention. With nursing focusing on the public, community level intervention would be appropriate for smoking cessation. The issue of smoking cessation could be approached from a community level where nurses devise approaches that would promote the communi ty norm as noted by Berndt et al. (2011), where the benefits of smoking cessation is advocated for. It would be important to also plan for preventive approaches. According to Maurer and Smith (2013), this reduces known risk factors and enhances protective factors. This nursing process should promote non-smoking habits in the community. As such, during detoxification, Rice et al. (2013) advocate for frequent assessments as the

Saturday, November 16, 2019

The Evolution Of Microelectronics Information Technology Essay

The Evolution Of Microelectronics Information Technology Essay The technological progress of the past decade has played an important role in the advancement of modern society by continuously supplying better quality goods which are accessible to the mass markets. Innovation has shaped our society as we know it which would otherwise be completely different from simple shopping to the achievements of modern medicine, from the hugely successful entertainment industry to the highly sophisticated education system none of these would have been possible without the solid backbone of modern technology. And technology would not exist if micro-electronics was not the highly developed and researched science it is today. A mere 60 years ago, no one would have been able to predict the impact of emerging technologies on worldwide business and economics few would have fathomed the concept of the Internet or even the remote possibility of wireless mobile telephony. The latest breakthrough in technological research is that of nano-electronics. Even if while writing this, nano-electronics is still a largely uncovered science, the odds are that over the following years it will have the potential to realign society, business and economics. Nano-electronics at the consumer level will touch all aspects of our economy, from wages to employment, purchasing, pricing, capital, exchange rates, currencies, markets, supply and demand. Nano-electronics may well drive economic prosperity or at the least be an enabling factor in productivity and global competitiveness. The Evolution of Micro-electronics. Figure 1: Evolution of Micro-electronics The intensive effort  by professionals in the electronics campus to increase the reliability and performance  of products while reducing their size and cost has led to the results that hardly anyone would have predicted but which we have all come to expect. In-fact many think that electronics made a revolution in human history and shaped our future in a way it would never have been possible. Through the years we saw the evolution of electronic components which decreased in size while performing increasingly complex electronic functions at ever higher speeds. It all began with the development of the transistor. Prior to  the invention of the transistor in 1947, its function in an electronic circuit could be performed only by a vacuum tube. Vacuum tubes were found to have several built-in problems. The main problem with these tubes was that they generated a lot of heat, required a warm-up time from 1 to 2 minutes, and required hefty power supply voltages of 300 volts dc and more. Another problem was that two identical tubes had different output and operational characteristics therefore designers were required to produce circuits that could work with any tube of a particular type. This meant that additional components were often required to tune the circuit to the output characteristics required for the tube used. Figure 2: A typical vacuum-tube chassis The first transistors had no striking advantage in size over the smallest tubes and they were more costly. The largest advantage the transistor had over the best vacuum tubes was that it consumed much less power than a vacuum tube did. Besides they also provided greater reliability and longer life. However, it took years to demonstrate other advantages of the transistor over vacuum tubes. The advent of microelectronic circuits has not, for the most part, changed the nature of the basic functional units: microelectronic devices were still made up of transistors, resistors, capacitors, and similar components. The major difference is that all these elements and their interconnections are now fabricated on a single substrate in a single series of operations. Several key developments were required before the exciting potential of integrated circuits could be realized. The development of microelectronics depended on the invention of techniques for making the various functional units on a crystal of semiconductor materials. In particular, a growing number of functions  have been given over to circuit elements that perform best: transistors. Several kinds of microelectronic transistors have been developed, and for each of them families of associated circuit elements and circuit patterns have evolved. The bipolar transistor was invented in 1948 by John Bardeen, Walter H. Brattain and William Shockley of the Bell Telephone Laboratories. In bipolar transistors charge carriers of both polarities are involved in their operation. They are also known as junction transistors. The NPN and PNP transistors make up the class of devices called junction transistors. A second kind of transistor was actually conceived almost 25 years before the bipolar devices, but its fabrication in quantity did not become practical until the early 1960s. This is the field-effect transistor. The one that is common in microelectronics is the metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor. The term refers to the three materials employed in its construction and is abbreviated MOSFET. The two basic types of transistor, bipolar and MOSFET, divide microelectronic circuits into two large families. Today the greatest density of circuit elements per- chip can be achieved with the newer MOSFET technology. Today, an individual integrated circuit on a chip can now embrace more electronic elements than most complex pieces of electronic equipment that could be built in 1950. In the first 15 years since the inception of integrated circuits, the number of transistors that could be placed on a single chip has doubled every year. The 1980 state of the art circuit is about 70K density per chip. The first generations of the commercially produced microelectronic devices are now referred to as small-scale integrated circuits (SSI). They included a few gates. The circuitry defining a logic array had to be provided by external conductors. Devices with more than about 10 gates on a chip but fewer than about 200 are medium-scale integrated circuits (MSI). The upper boundary of medium-scale integrated circuits technology is marked  by chips that contain a complete arithmetic and logic unit (ALU). This unit accepts two operands as inputs and can perform any one of a dozen or so operations on them. The operations include addition, subtraction, comparison, logical and and or and shifting one bit to the left or right. A large-scale integrated circuit (LSI) contains tens of thousands of elements, yet each element is so small that the complete circuit is typically less than a quarter of an inch on a side. Integrated circuits are evolving from large-scale to very-large-scale (VLSI) and wafer-scale integration (WSI). Since the transistor was invented over 50 years ago, the trend in electronics has been to create smaller and smaller products using fewer chips of greater complexity and smaller feature sizes. The development of integrated circuits and storage devices has continued to progress at an exponential rate; at present it takes two or three years for each successive halving of component size. Nanoelectronics refer to the use of nanotechnology on electronic components, especially transistors. Although the term nanotechnology is generally defined as utilizing technology less than 100  nm in size, nanoelectronics often refer to transistor devices that are so small that interactions and quantum mechanical properties need to be studied extensively. As a result, present transistors fall under this category, even though these devices are manufactured under 65  nm or 45  nm technology. Nanoelectronics are sometimes considered as disruptive technology because present candidates are significantl y different from traditional transistors. Some of these candidates include: hybrid molecular/semiconductor electronics, one dimensional nanotubes/nanowires, or advanced molecular electronics. Although all of these hold promise for the future, they are still under development and will most likely not be used for manufacturing any time soon. Economical and Social Impact of Micro-Electronics and Nano-Electronics. Fears of massive unemployment have greeted technological changes ever since the Industrial Revolution. Far from destroying jobs, however, rapid technological advance generally has created many new important opportunities. In the quarter-century, the industrial economics were flooded with new technologies while at the same time the amount of unemployed people has drastically been lowered. Lately with the help of new findings in the area of microelectronics and nanoelectronics they will have a fundamental impact on both the numbers and types of jobs in the industrial worlds in the following years. The microelectronic revolution already affected employment in enterprises ranging from steelworks to any other company and will continue to affect every aspect of work. Although microelectronic and nanoelectronic controls will not sweep through the industrial world overnight, most experts expect them to be firmly established in production processes. Set against these concerns, however, its a fact that nanoelectronic technologies will increase productivity over a broad range of industrial enterprises. In theory this should lead to enhanced economic growth, which in turn will translate into new roles. Put crudely, the extra production made possible by technological changes coincided with rising wealth and increased demand for manufactured goods and services, a combination that leads to high rates of economic growth and near-full employment. As is well known, combination of technological changes and economic pressures led to a sharp reduction in the worlds agricultural work force over the past half-century. In every major industrial country the agricultural labor force now represents less than 30 per cent of the working population. While the number of agricultural workers has decreased, however, output has risen substantially in general due to manufacturing firms which thus have replaced the workforce needed. At the same time, output, while fluctuating in tune with recessions, has increased. The phenomenon of jobless growth (growing in manufacturing but decreasing or maintaining the same level of employees) has now become established in the goods producing companies, this because mainly through technological change. Underlying this trend is the fact that investment in new production technologies has sought largely to streamline production processes rather than to expand output at a time demand is low and there is a high average wage rate. While these jobs and investment patterns have been developing, employment in the tertiary sector of finance, insurance and government services has been expanding rapidly. It is important to note that it is the productivity increases in the manufacturing industries that have themselves created the economic growth that in turn led to the increased demand for the services of the tertiary sector. This transition from agriculture to industry, and more recently to tertiary sector employment, has not been smooth or even. First, it is clear that microelectronic technologies will create jobs in those industries which manufacture electronic products. There are billions of money which are being lavished on mobile phones, electronic gadgets, computers and other microelectronic products which have spawned a whole industry that did not even exist a decade ago. It was found that about 10 million people are now employed in the electronics industry in the United States only. Through research and technological advancements micro-processors are much more efficient and cost effective that these are being used in almost everything. Micro-processors nowadays can be found in washing machines or incredibly enough also in toys, where years ago one would need to be very wealthy to have a micro-processor working and the phenomenal speeds which they work now. The use of microprocessors in manufacturing industries has essentially intensified the jobless growth that has been taking place in industrial countries in recent years. One should also note that the use of computers and other intelligent machines will lead to increased employment in some areas such as the growing industry of e-business. Today almost every person of the world bought something from the Internet, may it be clothes, electronic products, or any other thing. This industry nowadays is producing so much money that is very difficult to quantify. Computer programming, for example, is a labor-intensive activity that is a likely source of many thousands of new jobs. Demand for programmers is already outstripping supply, and some analysts have even suggested that this shortage could constrain growth in the use of computers in the coming years. But in most other areas of the tertiary sector, microelectronics is likely to lead to slower rates of employment growth or even to job losses. In areas such as insurance and banking, which arc labor intensive occupations that rely primarily on printed paper for their transactions, the application of electronic technology could have a major impact. Nowadays everything in the office is automated . The introduction of word processors, computers, and emails is also another aspect which has affected the economy both from a positive side and from the negative side. In todays offices only a few clerks are needed for what used to be a 50 person job in the 1960s like for example, a word processing task which is done using a computer and which has indeed resulted in unemployment., The positive side is that companies are much more efficient and communication is much more reliable. A simple example is a clerk who is employed with a company which deals with shipping of goods. Nowadays with the help of VPNs (virtual private networks) the clerk connects to his companys server through the internet and can work easily from home. This would alleviate electricity costs for the company as the employee is working from home, while the employee is comfortable working from home. Another simple example how reliable communication has advanced through technological research is by the use of emails. To day one sends an email to any recipient with some simple keystrokes. In turn the recipient receives this email in relatively a few minutes, and if there is a failure the system automatically notifies the sender that a communication has failed and he needs to resend it again. When postal mail was used it was a common thing that mail was lost and neither the sender nor the receiver would know where the letter is and if it has been delivered. The corporate computing environment has witnessed dramatic changes in the last few years, with a shift from rapid expansion of IT infrastructure in support of growing business needs, to carefully managing existing assets and investing in new strategic technologies that provide specific competitive advantages. Information technology managers today are challenged with providing more services to more users, meeting ever-increasing performance expectations, storing and managing exponentially increasing amounts of data, better protecting the network, a nd ensuring system stability-all with limited possibility to expand data centres because of shrinking budgets The advance in microelectronics and nanoelectronics affects not only the number of jobs in industrial countries, but also the type of jobs which will be available. The early use of robots on assembly lines has largely been dangerous and dirty. But as automation extends into design shops and machine rooms, highly skilled occupations were affected. And, at the other end of the sale, the use of computers and storage area networks have eliminated many filing and routine clerical jobs. Microelectronics thus has the potential, to decrease skill requirements in some jobs and increase them in others. Another example where micro-electronics has succeeded is in the area of robotization. The main purpose of robotization is certainly to improve the productivity of manufacturing processes and the qua1ity of products, which help increase competitiveness of produced goods in the market and bring in gains for the companies. From a broader view point, the increase in process productivity may accelerate growth of these industries and then contribute to the growth of the national economy. The preceding discussion indicates that robotization gives rise to reduction in employment in manufacturing processes, which will be at least partly covered by expansion of the market in the long run. It is obvious that seriousness of the employment impact will be greatly eased by the latter effects. Therefore we should estimate how much these effects will be, and if possible in what time spans these effects will emerge. However, it should be noticed that the compensation is only to a certain degree even if it takes over the first type impact in number. The job pattern in a factory or a company will change and transfer of labour force from the jobs for which robots are introduced to those created by market expansion is unavoidable. Another type of economic impact of robotization is as described before impact on the international market. Expansion of exports or at least the reduction of imports of manufacturing goods due to increase in their competitiveness in the international market gives positive impacts on the national economy, but in many cases with the sacrifice of worsening trade balance of partner countries. It means that the competition in the international market is likely to be a zero sum or a1most a zero sum game at least in the short run. All developed countries are certain1y members of the game, new1y industrialized countries or emerging countries will be more sensitive to changes in market competitiveness of member countries. Though the microelectronic revolution already impacted most of the countries in the world, nanoelectronics is likely to have a major impact on the numbers and types of jobs available in the industrial world over the next few decades, every expert who has studied the subject has reached the same conclusion: More jobs will be lost in those countries that do not pursue the technology vigorously than in those that do: Because nanoelectronics will enhance productivity so greatly, the industries that move swiftly to adopt the technology will have a competitive advantage in international markets. As the global economy continues to be transformed by new technology, there will always be need for talent, intellectual property, capital and technical expertise. We see many of these factors responsible for shaping how nations today compete, interact and trade. Technical innovations will increasingly shape economies and market robustness. Technology will continue to drive global and domestic GDP. Competition will be fueled increasingly by fast breaking innovations in technology. Today this is obvious as rapid technological changes in telecommunications, life sciences, and the Internet demonstrates the emergence of entirely new economic and business realities. If the proliferation of todays technologies to form new business models is any indication of the speed and power of change in the economy, future nano-technologies will make for an even more dramatic shift. Rates of progress in microelectronics suggest that in about a decade 80% of the people in the world will possess a notebook-size computer with the capacity of a large computer of today. The future increase in capacity and decrease in cost of microelectronic devices has not only given rise to compact and powerful hardware but also bring qualitative changes in the way human beings and computers interact. Computing and storage capacity are many times that of past microcomputers: tens of millions of basic operations per second manipulate the equivalent of several thousand printed pages of information. The personal computer can be regarded as the newest example of human mediums of communication. Various means of storing, retrieving and manipulating information have been in existence since human beings began to talk. Although digital computers were originally designed to do arithmetic operations, their ability to simulate the details of any descriptive model means that the computer, viewed as a medium, can simulate any other medium if the methods of simulation are sufficiently well described With the technological advance in nanoelectronics multi-core processors represent a major evolution in computing technology. This important development is coming at a time when businesses and consumers are beginning to require the benefits offered by these processors due to the exponential growth of digital data and the globalization of the Internet. Multi-core processors will eventually become the primary computing model because they offer performance and productivity benefits beyond the capabilities of todays single-core processors. Multi-core processors will also play a central role in driving important advancements in PC security and virtualization technologies that are being developed to provide greater protection, resource utilization, and value for the commercial computing market. One particularly frustrating process is compiling software after the code has been written. Compiling is notorious for overloading computer processor capacity and causing, in many cases, lengthy development cycles. During these periods, software engineers are at the mercy of their computer resources. In many cases, the speed at which software code is being compiled results in greater productivity for the programmer. Overall, that translates into a more efficient software development cycle. Consumers, too, will have access to greater performance than ever before, which will significantly expand the utility of their home PCs and digital media computing systems. Multi-core processors will also have the benefit of offering performance without having to increase power requirements, which will translate into greater performance per watt. Placing two or more powerful computing cores on a single processor opens up a world of important new possibilities. The next generation of software applications will likely be developed using multi-core processors because of the performance and efficiency they can deliver compared to single core processors. Whether these applications help professional animation companies produce more realistic movies faster for less money, or create breakthrough ways to make a PC more natural and intuitive, the widespread availability of hardware using multi-core processor technology will forever change the computing universe. Computer processor design has evolved at a constant pace for the last 20 years. The proliferation of computers into the mass market and the tasks we ask of them continue to push the need for more powerful processors. The market requirement for higher performing processors is linked to the demand for more sophisticated software applications. E-mail, for instance, which is now used globally, was only a limited and expensive technology 10 years ago. Today, software applications span everything from helping large corporations better manage and protect their business-critical data and networks to allowing PCs in the home to edit home videos, manipulate digital photographs, and burn downloaded music to CDs. Tomorrow, software applications might create real-world simulations that are so vivid it will be difficult for people to know if they are looking at a computer monitor or out the window; however, advancements like this will only come with significant performance increases nd inexpensive computer technologies. Multi-core processors have the potential to run applications more efficiently than single-core processors-giving users the ability to keep working even while running the most processor intensive tasks in the background, like searching a database, rendering a 3D image, ripping and burning music files to a CD, or downloading videos off the Web. For years, independent software vendors delivered imaginative and robust solutions to solve real-world problems, benefiting both businesses and general consumers. Businesses rely on constantly improving software for automating exceedingly complex processes, including those dealing with e-commerce and information management. Consumers are doing more complex tasks on their PCs, including manipulating digital photographs and media, and running cutting-edge games. The sheer number of new applications, and the exciting functionality they provide, is a credit to software engineers. However, in their quest to design more sophisticated applications, while at the same time making them easier to use and more cost-effective, these professionals are regularly pushing the limits of current processor capacity. Multi-core processors will solve many of the challenges currently facing software designers by delivering significant performance increases at a time when they need it most. With increasing competition and market demands, engineers need to provide more functionality into their designs in less time. Whether enhancing and updating large, enterprise applications or developing the next generation PC game, software developers are acutely aware of the computational requirements during each phase of creation. In additional to what we have read already, nano-electronics affects also the academic part in our society, the knowledge and competencies required for working in the field of future nanoelectronics which are evolvingvery fast. At both ends (material/devices and circuits/systems) there is the need to renew and redefine the content of the knowledge portfolio that colleges provide to students or to company employees for continuous education. Micro-electronics and nano-electronics not only allow us to work comfortably or to enjoy high quality videos but it helps us to travel as well. The old 1950s vision was to have a car which would drive without the need to touch the steering wheel or that it would have everything which a person would dream about. Nowadays almost every car uses microcontrollers in order to control the car from many different ways like controlling the safety of the car itself. In fact most modern cars have embedded the system of traction control which has a microcontroller which constantly monitors the traction and if there is any fluctuation of loss in traction it will quickly compute the necessary adjustments which are needed to regain traction. Apart from this many modern cars incorporate automatic sensors which in turn are all adjusted, monitored and switch on or off by a controller. It is normal as well to see cars which are switched on simply by pressing a button from the key itself, which is indee d a breakthrough in cars history. Micro-electronics has also effected our lifestyles in so many other ways, making our everyday routine a little more comfortable.. For example, nowadays it is easy to find a complete kitchen system which enables us to set the oven to a pre-defined temperature and cook our meal while we surf the internet or perhaps communicate with our friends through social networks which have become very popular. Other home appliances, like washing machines or electric water heaters, can be set in motion using the internet, from practically any location. Micro-electronics has also contributed effectively in administering the use of electricity more efficiently. Todays appliances incorporate sensors and controllers which continuously monitor energy consumption and if there is anything which is not being used in-turn they will turn it off in order to consume less power. The above examples are proof that research in the area of micro-electronics and nano-electronics has contributed hugely to change our society in many positive ways. Teleworking is slowly becoming a reality for many people, enabling them to commute from their own homes, eliminating the need to travel to work, thus giving parents more flexibility. Communication has been made easier because of better telephony as well as more advanced mobile technologies. Scientists are able to carry out research using extremely sophisticated and intelligent machines which was only possible with advancement in the micro-electronics and nano-electronics fields. Conclusion The debate about the social implications of microelectronics and nanoelectronics is ongoing. The past has shown us how the switch from old technologies to micro-electronics has affected all aspects of life, from the standards of living to employment, from a more organized social environment to the manifestation of socio-cultural problems such as modern depression, alienation, helplessness and growing resistance against changes. Mankind is now on the brink of another major change that of changing over from using microelectronics to the newer technology of nanoelectronics and this implies another impact on everything we know. This time, influences on employment will be profound but difficult to predict, because different sectors are affected differently. Nanoelectronics will have a significant impact on the semiconductor industry. All electronics related items like memory devices, storage devices, display devices, and communication devices will be swept away by the nanoelectronics wave. From transistors to the computers they fit in, every single device will undergo transformation. Nano-scale devices will enable the creation of a new world of innovative products, such as biosensors, molecular memory, spin based electronic products, and flexible and light-weight photovoltaic cells. The change is inevitable. The future is nano-electronics.

Wednesday, November 13, 2019

Essay --

In the 1950s, space exploration represented the epitome of human scientific achievement. However, beginning in the 1970s, long-term goals of space exploration were shelved in favor of smaller projects that kept astronauts closer to Earth. Throughout the years, advocates have pushed for a return to space exploration, noting that valuable discoveries and technological advancements would likely emerge from such a program. In 2011, the United States ended its space shuttle program. While other countries such as China and Russia continue to expand their space programs today, American space exploration has been put to a halt. Many Americans believe that the United States space program requires a huge chunk of government funding. In reality, NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) spending typically comprises of less than one percent of the federal government's budget ("Space Exploration"). Many Americans have called for an end to government-funded space exploration because they feel like the space program does not offer any benefits to the average citizen and that the money would be better spent on Earth-based efforts to improve the nation ("Space Exploration"). What if by traveling to space and exploring the unknown territory, we in fact improve our nation? What if Mars is capable of sustaining life? What if the cure for cancer is lying beneath the surface of a planet? If space exploration remains halted, there might be many questions left unanswered. In 2004, President George W. Bush announced the end of the US space shuttle program in 2010. He planned to replace it with a space program named Constellation, which aimed to return Americans to the moon to do more research and to tap into that body's frozen water for mak... ...chael Lind, an author and policy director at the New America Foundation, said: When the Apollo astronauts landed on the moon, many assumed that this was the first step toward the permanent colonization of the moon and journeys by astronauts to other planets. From today's perspective, though, the space race was like the races to the North Pole and the South Pole. Once explorers had reached those destinations, the world lost interest. Space exploration is something that is extremely important to the future of our nation. Leaving space undiscovered would leave many questions unanswered. The solution to many of our nation's problems could be found in space, but Americans will never know unless space exploration continues to be successful. If the government no longer wants to fund a space program, space exploration should become privatized so that progress can be made. Essay -- In the 1950s, space exploration represented the epitome of human scientific achievement. However, beginning in the 1970s, long-term goals of space exploration were shelved in favor of smaller projects that kept astronauts closer to Earth. Throughout the years, advocates have pushed for a return to space exploration, noting that valuable discoveries and technological advancements would likely emerge from such a program. In 2011, the United States ended its space shuttle program. While other countries such as China and Russia continue to expand their space programs today, American space exploration has been put to a halt. Many Americans believe that the United States space program requires a huge chunk of government funding. In reality, NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) spending typically comprises of less than one percent of the federal government's budget ("Space Exploration"). Many Americans have called for an end to government-funded space exploration because they feel like the space program does not offer any benefits to the average citizen and that the money would be better spent on Earth-based efforts to improve the nation ("Space Exploration"). What if by traveling to space and exploring the unknown territory, we in fact improve our nation? What if Mars is capable of sustaining life? What if the cure for cancer is lying beneath the surface of a planet? If space exploration remains halted, there might be many questions left unanswered. In 2004, President George W. Bush announced the end of the US space shuttle program in 2010. He planned to replace it with a space program named Constellation, which aimed to return Americans to the moon to do more research and to tap into that body's frozen water for mak... ...chael Lind, an author and policy director at the New America Foundation, said: When the Apollo astronauts landed on the moon, many assumed that this was the first step toward the permanent colonization of the moon and journeys by astronauts to other planets. From today's perspective, though, the space race was like the races to the North Pole and the South Pole. Once explorers had reached those destinations, the world lost interest. Space exploration is something that is extremely important to the future of our nation. Leaving space undiscovered would leave many questions unanswered. The solution to many of our nation's problems could be found in space, but Americans will never know unless space exploration continues to be successful. If the government no longer wants to fund a space program, space exploration should become privatized so that progress can be made.

Monday, November 11, 2019

Ptlls Written Rationale

Preparing to Teach in the Lifelong Learning Sector (PTLLS) Written Rationale My micro-teach is about Accessibility Options, an IT related topic. I choose this subject because I am interested in IT. We are all aware that IT covers a wide range of topics. I have deliberately concentrated on the topic, Accessibility Options in the Control Panel in Windows XP, simply because I want to make my learners aware of the feature available for disabled users and how those types of users could apply it to their daily lives.I also intend to explain the methods in which a normal user can support disabled users. The Accessibility Options will cover 4 categories, which are Sticky Keys, Filter Keys, Toggle Keys and Magnifier. I have re-looked at my previous comments related to the one to one micro-teach, such as practicing before hand and being better prepared, which I currently doing so. I have designed individual handout booklets for the learners to use during the session and refer to after the less on.I want the learners to demonstrate what they have learned. The ideal way would be to get the learners to practice on their own individual computers, to do this I will need a few extra computers which unfortunately do not have. I shall therefore ask my learners to answer a few questions related to the session instead. My teaching delivery is based on lecturing whilst demonstrating my topic by using the computer and smart board to help my learners understand.

Friday, November 8, 2019

Advantages and Disadvantages of Space Research Research Paper Example

Advantages and Disadvantages of Space Research Research Paper Example Advantages and Disadvantages of Space Research Paper Advantages and Disadvantages of Space Research Paper Space research has many advantages and disadvantages. Some of the advantages are that many discoveries have been made due to space research. This knowledge can help us become a more developed society and it helps the economy. Space research can benefit us by discovering technology that will help us with our lives. Technologies have been discovered thanks to the space program such as Teflon which is a non- stick cook wear will continue to improve our lives. Space research and exploration may help us discover new elements and minerals that could help earth by provided things like medicine. These studies will help us to become a more developed society and is one reason why space exploration and research is helping for our society. Space research and exploration is also very valuable for the economy because it provides jobs and tourism. Many jobs are required for space research for example scientists, engineers and even manufactures that can help in make parts for the space program. Space research also can improve Australia’s tourism because people will come over here to look at our space programs especially scientists. Space research and exploration is not only good for knowledge but also the economy. Space research is also important because earth may not be able to continue to be a sustainable planet because of things like global warming and nuclear wars. It is extremely beneficial to study space so that we can find a life sustaining planet that we may be able to evacuate to. This an example of why space research is important in sustaining humans and other life forms. On the other hand space research has some extreme disadvantages. These disadvantages are that we should fix earth’s issues and the detrimental environmental impacts. The first major reason against space research is that it is incredibly expensive and we should be spending this money on more important things. Space research is incredibly expensive and may achieve no direct benefit. The money should be spent on earth’s issues rather than trying to know more about the universe. The money could be spent on fixing world poverty, health and education but instead it is spent on knowing more about space. This seems terribly unfair and appalling because people are dying and we our spending money on space. We should be fixing earth’s issues before wanting to know more about space. The second major reason is that space research can have some detrimental impacts on the environment. The space Industry uses millions of tons of coals every year which waste gas, like carbon dioxide, discharged into air annually, resulting a series of environment problems such as ozone hole and acid rain directly. The space program is harmful for the environment and the environmental impacts will only continue to rise. Overall, I believe that space research is important but should not be put ahead of earth’s issues.

Wednesday, November 6, 2019

The Herschel Family essays

The Herschel Family essays Sir William Herschel was the first of the influential Herschel family to become involved in astronomy. His sister Caroline Lucretia and his son Sir John Frederick William also got involved in different aspects of astronomy. Sir William Herschel was born in 1738 as Friedrich Wilhelm Herschel. He was born in Hanover, Germany. His father was a musician, which led to William becoming skilled on several instruments at a young age. He became a band boy in the Hanoverian Guards because of his fathers influence in music. In 1757, he moved to England to work as a musical conductor, an organist, and a music teacher. While in England, he also studied math and astronomy in his spare time. Because of his interest in astronomy, Herschel began constructing telescopes and studying the sky. Herschel built a larger telescope with the help of his sister Caroline and his brother Alexander. On March 13, 1781, Herschel made his most important observation from a 7-inch reflecting telescope. He noticed an unusual object in the sky that presented an extended disk-like shape. He thought that he had discovered a comet. Herschel continued his observations of this comet and began calculations that lasted for months. He discovered that the orbit lay farther beyond the orbit of Saturn and was circular. He realized that the comet was in fact a planet. He originally named the new planet Georgium Sidus to be named after George III, but it was eventually named Uranus after the god of the skies. After his discovery, he was granted a pension of 200 pounds a year by King George III and knighted by him. He then was made the Kings astronomer. With his pension, this enabled him to devote all his time to astronomy. Since technology was lacking in the late 18th and early 19th century, the instruments Herschel had lacked clock drives to keep them trained on the moving sky. Instead, he directed his telescope to a po...

Monday, November 4, 2019

Hitch Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Hitch - Essay Example During the time when Hitchens tries to help out Albert he also falls for Sara who was a gossip columnist. Thus the movie moves forwards with the interplay of the four characters in different situations. (Tenant, 2005). As the movie moves forward it is able to capture the attention of the audience because it is a movie to which most of the audience is able to relate easily. The goal of the paper is to explore how closely sociological issues are related to the movie Hitch. The main issues which have been addressed through the movie are primarily social interaction, race and gender. This is because we see in the movie Sara the gossip columnist had a strong dislike for men and she believed that men are worthless. From the feminist perspective it can be said that Sara wanted to protest against all men of the society by showing complete disregard and disgust for them. Moreover we also see in the movie that she thinks Alex Hitchens as a man who teaches other men to use women according to their fancy. This is because one of the clients of Alex had a one night stand with Sara’s best friend. Taking cue from this we can say that the movie Hitch also tries to focus on the objectification of women from the perspective of Sara. Through Sara the message which we get is that objectification of women by men was a very common phenomenon and women were aware of such a system existing and here in the movie Sara’s desire to unmask Hitchens is basically a p rotest which women want to undertake against men. Therefore Sara is determined to unmask Alex in front of the world. Devereux in the book, â€Å"Media Studies: Key Issues and Debates† says that the casting of the movie â€Å"Hitch† has remained an example of the inadequate representation of the minority groups like the Blacks in the mass media. Alex played by William Smith is an example of African representation in the media and the presence of stars like him point to the fact that though Blacks have received

Saturday, November 2, 2019

Paediatric Radiography Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Paediatric Radiography - Essay Example From the diagram, it will be noted that at different ages, there are different anatomical proportions that people possess. This means that the body proportion of an adult is different from a child. In paediatric radiography, this understanding is very important in ensuring that the wrong body parts will not be captured while engaging in radiographic procedures. The differences in anatomical proportion are also necessary when giving protection to various parts of the body. For example, the size of a blockade to be used on the chest of the child cannot be the same for an adult. This is because the differences in proportion imply that it will not be possible to cover out relatively the same areas when using the same dimensions for both. There are a lot of radiographic exposure parameters that must be considered in paediatric radiography. One of these is focal spot size. For paediatric radiography, the advice is that â€Å"the ability of the focal spot to provide the most appropriate exposure time and radiographic voltage selection at a stated focus-to-film distance† should be preferred (Hardy and Boynes, 2003, p. 25). There is also the issue of tube filtration, where the use of high kV techniques is recommended in order to get the shortest exposure times possible. Rooks, Sisler and Burton (1998) also mentioned voltage as another exposure factor, indicating that high voltage can enhance short exposure times, which are needed for paediatric radiographic examinations. Currently, such short exposure times are achieved with the use of high frequency generators (Hardy and Boynes, 2005). It is common knowledge that paediatric radiography requires more radiation protection, even though all forms of radiation protection are necessary in adult radiography. In paediatric protection, the tenderness of body tissues and possibility of cells not being mature enough is the major

Thursday, October 31, 2019

Can U.K. be Described as a Homogeneous Society Essay

Can U.K. be Described as a Homogeneous Society - Essay Example The rise of industrialization, with its drawing of people into slums in large towns and cities contributed to a new set of cultural distinctions based on class, and in turn on politics, with the emergence of Labour and Tory ideologies with their focus on the interests of working and middle classes respectively. These distinctions have been eroded, somewhat, with the rise of New Labour, and the dilemmas that all advanced capitalists states face when expansion no longer seems achievable or even appropriate. Class distinctions have shifted from the defining domain of work, to that of popular culture. The media feed multiple new sub-cultures, based on tastes in clothes, music, lifestyle, entertainment etc. The influence on the media on culture is, however , not without its problems. One effect is to cater for a highly commercialised product which is targeted at maximum coverage. This is so much commercial output is commodified to the point where it appears unoriginal. Recent empirical in vestigations of the actual perceptions of people in all regions of the UK, as opposed to popular myths suggest, however, that ancient assumptions about such distinctions as race and class may no longer hold in quite the way that people imagine. The idea, much vaunted by some, that the political culture in Scotland is fundamentally different than in England, for example, has turned out not to be well founded in fact: â€Å"despite all the very plausible reasons why Scots should be different, our comprehensive comparisons suggested far more similarity than difference between those who live in Scotland and those who live in the rest of Britain.† (Miller et al., 1996, p. 369) The strands of culture that divide people are no longer based so much upon indigenous peoples, but along grounds of class, politics, gender, religion and any number of other features. In his interesting analysis of the way government and politics have developed in Britain, John Kingdom traces the countryâ₠¬â„¢s journey in the last hundred years or so from being a force of world capitalism, governing an empire consisting of many colonies in far corners of the world, to its present position as a former colonial master, still dealing with the aftermath of empire, and failing to find a comfortable position in relation to the emerging consellation of powers on the European mainland. Concepts such as the once splendid â€Å"sceptered isle† (Kingdom, 2004, p. 87) and the â€Å"Rule Britannia† complacency of previous ages no longer apply in a world which is increasingly inter-connected. The process of globalisation changes the way that people relate to both space and time, bringing distant matters close, and speeding up all the communication and trading processes that underpin the world economy. John Kingdom points out that the United Kingdom can no longer take for granted a privileged position as driver of these changes, and is now entering into a period of decline. The geogra phical island situation which was once interpreted as a distinctive and ennobling feature, becomes something much more akin to isolation or even exclusion, as the British Prime minister recently discovered during European finance negotiations. In an entirely different domain, the transition from a position of dealing with

Tuesday, October 29, 2019

Homelessness Essay Example for Free

Homelessness Essay Homelessness is the condition and societal category of people who lack fixed housing, usually because they cannot afford a regular, safe, and adequate shelter (Smith Keown-Bomar, 2007). The homeless can either be sheltered or unsheltered. Many causes are attributable to homelessness. It could be due to natural disasters, war, mental conditions, poverty, substance abuse, lack of parental care, eviction by landlords, poor government policies on social welfare and housing. This category of people may be seen on the street in abandoned apartments, cars, hotels, refuge camps, or double-up with friends and relatives. Various means of counting the homeless in different countries have been designed, one of such techniques is point-in-time count adopted by United States Department of Housing and Urban Development which is used in all Continuum of Care among communities for better planning of government programmes and policies especially on housing and social development. For the success of the counting process, objectives are set and various methods of actualizing these goals are recruited. There is need to create a well-trained working group who are involved in planning, execution and monitoring progress of the count, as well responsible for improving and maintaining standards of the process. A point-in-time count coordinator is selected who calls for meeting, send out letters to the stakeholders in the communities stakeholders such as county judges, mayors, law enforcement, local jails, schools, local businesses with vested interests, hospitals, churches, local media outlets, and private citizens. He prepares the agenda related to the planning process, among other things. In a nutshell, determining actual number of the homeless is a difficult task due to their life style. However,proper planning and cautious execution of the count would help in identifying possible solution to housing and necessary social support to the homeless and the communities at large.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

Sites Overview And Comparison Tourism Essay

Sites Overview And Comparison Tourism Essay 1: site A (Old Colliery ) its a disused site due to the wards acute and depravation, it requires considerable sterilisation of the premises and clean up the site before making any moves which will cost extra found to be invest out of the initial budget and also the site was used as a dump chemical site, transportation fluidity is extremely poor in this location when coming from Western District zone going toward the Eastern site of the district, and also the image of the site is likely to be seen as low restrict living environment and if considering the diminishment of green space in this locality where people are not willing to be staying in this low class environment where suitable housing accommodation are nowhere to be found. Now when highlighting the dump chemical on this site if taking an example of Fukushima in the recent year nuclear accident when focusing on the radio activity, we could easily underpin that radioactivity diminishes in time, so waste material is general insul ated and be stored for a time period until they no longer constitutes a danger, but might also depends on the kind of waste. For wastes at low level of instance having low levels of radiation per mass unit might have being stored for within hours or days while the advanced level must be retained for a year or longer. However its environmental problems could be numerous. Now going back in the time when taking this scenario of us compare to Landfills issue we could come across two distinct major issues about the dump chemical waste concerning the environment and these are the atmospheric effects and hydrological effects. Where most often the household cleaning chemicals thrown by the surrounding people of site, along with the old industrial sites in this area get accumulate and mix over the time, the mixture of chemicals like bleach from the surrounding household of the site produce toxic gases that can significantly impact the quality of air. A more immediate concern is for the welfa re of wildlife that comes in contact with these chemicals and it is not unusual to allow them to suffer being incredibly painful deaths from the chemical contamination. In conclusion we could tell that the environmental issues this District is not the appropriate place on where to build an NHS Hospital where physical treatment will be held, and over factor regarding the environment is that this site lacks of green space where the availability of green space is easy to be found on Dams Nature Reserve District. Aside from the various types of gases that can be created, formation of non-chemical contamination along with the dust may cause the atmosphere having impact in the air quality issue. http://greenliving.lovetoknow.com/Environmental_Problems:_Landfills 2: Site B (Dams Nature Reserve) has much opportunities as it is described in the report compare to the others site due to the fact that it gives way to the nearest railway station, buses service are available to be used on the site and can lead you travel from the Middle district site toward the Western site of the district, where the people around the site are well intellectual and professional which mushes the requirements of NHS entry careers portfolio which demands t to study for a recognised qualification for these professional staff member even though you can join NHS along with good GCSE and / or work experience in several of lower rank roles, as receptionist or porter from where you can build up qualifications and experience until you reach a senior role career, such as a laundry services supervisor. However the emplacement of Dams Nature Reserve meets the construction requirement, where the aim is to build a hospital in the Mid Southern District side which comes closer to th is district along with the golf park viewed as an attractive activity could draw the attention of people in the site. All the more its a well prestige site compared to the others districts. It will attract more visitors on the site for those coming to pay for the health service if the NHS is built on this site or any other activities around the site that could attract investor, these could be the non-clinical support services such as catering, cleaning, laundry and pottering all of these could be run with less educating people from the other district that will come working at Dams Nature Reserve, where return revenue can boost the economical density in the area. History revealed that in the 1900s Great Britain also allowed workers from foreign places to come due to the fact that Britain was short of labour force and this encourage economic growth for the country which could also be the case for Dams Nature Reserve to call up for the less skilled population in the others District. No w with the existence of green space around the hospital shore will be viewed as a positive mind set for the environment, because spaces provide habitat for a wide range of birds, fish, animals, insects and other organisms, while avoid soil erosion and absorbing the rain water, thereby improving the drainage. It enables recreational use, somewhere to play meditating collect, or rest. Green provides a sense of social location it possible to obtain social recognition reinforce the feeling of the relationship and family solidarity, can teach and lead others, the opportunity to thinking about the personal values and social support and the link between residents and the natural environment that surrounds it. permit the city more bearable which is crucial for a community to be sustainable. In every walk of life, green space draws people on the outside and promotes social interaction. Provides spaces in which people can get together and possibilities for positive social interaction and envi ronments. Studies have revealed that the residents in the vicinity of common green spaces had more social activities and more visitors, community gardens are beneficial to the specific health issues affecting the low-income communities in urban areas. Exhibition in green space reduces stress and increases a sense of well-being and belonging, as the buses pollute the air, where the use of green space is shown to absorb pollution from cars driven miles away per day it has also been shown to reduce the urban heat island effect, directly by shading heat absorbent surfaces, and indirectly through cooling evapotranspiration. It also helps reduce noise, by shields dense in trees and bushesand may even clean up partially treated waste water. Finally, a green area is an indicator of overall ecological health of the ecosystem. It comes to a significant step in assessing the ecological viability in the community of Dams Nature Reserve, which is found to be the most prosperous parts of all dist ricts. Why Protect Urban Green Space? 3: when taking into account the profile of district C (Derelict Woolen Mill Complex ), we come to understand that this part of the district also have good attribute on which its well considerable place to leave on. it location gives access to motorway and buses ride from middle woollen town, but as we are recommended to build an hospital that will best serve demands for people, especially in the Mid Southern District, where enough space for car park would not really be possible to build in the zone, is the traffic issue were when considering transportation connexion from the hospital to be and the link between the districts for the good functioning of the traffic within the district itself and its boundaries in order to increase the traffic in this area but will cost up to a quarter of any budget as its mentioned on the district profile while we are trying to focus on the NHS Trust Hospital budget rather than having extra found to be raised in the contract . we could extremely say th at its necessary to have much more roads to easily transfer people from one place to the others in case of emergency situation, while district B is more reliable and profitable for cars owners, public transport and others transportation facilities to move around compare to the rest of the districts . Now as every organisation or business fields we all aim to gain a positive return profit to satisfy our needs along with to meet the patients and visitors needs and requirement, however, there is not a competitive advantage opportunity of the economy in this area due to the fact that people are going jobless and also the others aspect that worries the team is the fact Derelict Woolen Mill Complex District is also seen as a depravation site. Justification and suggestion: When reading article about the three sites Old Colliery, Dams Nature Reserve and Derelict Woolen Mill Complex, weve understand that Old Colliery District in the past was use as a dumping site for chemical experiences where taking into account the radio activities in this area will not be suitable to establish an NHS Trust Hospital due to the fact of the air pollution and also the image of the site when it cannot attract investor to come establish themselves in this particular area of the district, moving on Derelict Woolen Mill Complex we deliberately see that the site has access to public transport with others good aspect but because its also hold the similar attribute of Old Colliery District when it comes to depravation and also because if having the NHS hospital in this locality it will be difficult for visitors to have access to car park. However, when analysing Dams Nature Reserve we came to conclude that its the suitable site on which we should invest on. our choice in that pa rticular site comes when comparing the three districts and their overall overview Dams Nature Reserve met the requirement needed to build the NHS Hospital on due to the fact that it has access to public transport and having a green space in itself which is highly important as a place where having a business activities and hospital around, Dams Nature Reserve District also leads you travel from the Middle district toward the Western district, where the NHS Trust Hospital is proposed to be in this particular map of the District SWOT PEST Analyses Strength: the strength of Dams Nature Reserve is that, its hold a green space environment as a park recreation for people to be coming and have a fresh moment of rest, while the district itself is the most prosperous site compare the rest of them, it has access to public transport and the reputation of the district comes with intellectual and professional people as with a good living environment compared to Derelict Woolen Mill Complex. Weakness: thinking of the weakness of Dams Nature Reserve comes with the Specialist Scientific Interest and the absence of water and also the wildlife activist. Opportunity: the opportunity of building the NHS Trust Hospital will again come to reinforce the economical aspect of the district itself and also permit the workforce from the others district to get themselves a job opportunity, while the Hospital itself will also meets the demand for the local and surrounding population. Threats: in this scenario we could see the threats as the wildlife group and environmental opposition to come into an accord on how to cope with this issue in order to establish the NHS Hospital in the District. Political In the political aspect of this task we understand that Hilary Thompson ought to push forward the coming of this NHS Hospital in order to raise her profile due to the coming of the next election. It could have been important for her to use her statue as a member of the parliament to help solve the issue with the activist by having an accord with Dams Nature Reserve District in order to establish the NHS which will at first place reinforce the health service in her district and also promote job for her local community by having some percentage of workforce labour. Economic The economic factors is seen to be a professional place to live on where private hospital have already establish themselves and if focus on the return revenue, after solving the conflict between wild activist and others joint group will certainty comes to be a positive choice in regard of investment as it is also demonstrated by a bank representative concerning this site. Social Lifestyle factors such as wild activists and the opposed citizen that are not willing to let PFI financing the Hospital project. Technological Looking at the technological aspect the people living at Dams Nature Reserve are highly professional and can fluently work in the hospital including the technological aspect with in it Environment: Having the Hospital built in Dams Nature Reserve will come to be an ideal place due to the fact that it fits the ecological view of the people and the site never been used as dump chemical experience, along with its green space for the wellbeing of people around life style view is mentioned to be a professional place to live on Legal: