Tuesday, December 31, 2019

The New Deal The Depression Years by Anthony Badger

Badger, Anthony J. .The New Deal: The Depression Years, 1933- 1940. 1989. Reprint. Chicago : Ivan R. Dee, 2002. Print. The New Deal era is often cited as the time when the federal government began to assume its modern form. It was a time of unprecedented government intervention and in many ways changed the way Americans viewed government. After the Stock Market Crash of 1929, it was clear that the government was going to take immediate action. Anthony Badger’s The New Deal: The Depression Years, 1933-1940 is an outstanding summary of some of the most difficult, yet important, years in American history. A frustrating factor of this book is that Badger doesn’t use footnotes, even with direct quotes. Instead he refers to specific authors, newspapers, and other works within the book. This loss is aided by his lengthy bibliographic essay and a list of abbreviations used within the book and their meanings. This list helps because it clarifies the specific organizations and gr oups used in the book. Within the book, Badger manages to mix together a number of different interpretations to present an account of both the New Deal and its historiography. Badger proposes a comparison of the reforms instituted and their unanticipated consequences. Many of these were the exact opposite of what the New Deal proposed, for example, the stronger establishment of big corporations, urban sprawl rather than revived inner cities, weak labor laws, and others. He initially discusses that hisShow MoreRelatedThe Global War to the Great Depression627 Words   |  2 Pagesled to an equally heinous economic recession, triggering global fear and lack of guidance. World leaders stood to the challenge of mending the shattered 100 year peace and economy in Europe. America, it seemed, desired no part in this scramble for order, turning its back to the international world. Through the Great War to the Great Depression, the transforming world not only caused America to withdraw from the world, but also allowed Franklin Delano Roosevelt an opportunity to refine all aspectsRead MoreEssay on The New Deals Failure to Aid African Americans5224 Words   |  21 PagesThe New Deals Failure to Aid African Americans President Roosevelts New Deal program during the 1930s failed to aid impoverished African-American citizens. The New Deal followed a long, historical chronology of American failures in attempts to ensure economic prosperity and racial equality. During the nearly seventy years after the conclusion of the Civil War, the United States faced a series of economic depressions, unmotivated Congress, and a series of mediocre presidents. With the exceptionRead MorePresident Franklin Delano Roosevelt - A Great Leader Essay2347 Words   |  10 Pageswas born in New York on January 30th in 1882. His family was from wealthy New Yorkers on both sides. Groton boarding school and his â€Å"private tutors provided him with almost all his formative education† (Biography of Franklin D. Roosevelt). After general schooling he attended Harvard University and achieved a Bachelor’s degree within only three years. While at Harvard he met Eleanor, who would be influential in his life and presi dency for many years. Columbia Law School only lasted 3 years because he

Sunday, December 22, 2019

The Narrative Of The Life Of Frederick Douglass - 2776 Words

The Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass perfectly depicts the dreadful experience of living in slavery. From being unsure of the day he was born, to his first beating from a master, to the brutal and exhausting work, and to the joyous day he was freed. Besides describing his experience as a slave, he describes the toll slavery had on the masters and families of slaves. Frederick Douglass also includes his view of education in relation to freedom. The Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass is a good excerpt from The Classic Slave Narratives that can be considered a good historical resource due to the historical content it provides about slavery. Frederick Douglass gave countless examples of the effect that slavery had on the slaves, as well as on the masters. One specific example of how slavery has an effect on the masters is Sophia Auld. Sophia had never owned a slave before Frederick . Douglass described Sophia as â€Å"a woman with the kindest heart and finest feel ings.† Before owning a slave, she was the nicest person he had ever come across. She began to teach him the alphabet and how to read. Eventually, Mr. Auld found out and forbade her to teach him. Unfortunately, the concept of slavery changed Sophia. Instead of being the nicest woman, she began watching Frederick closer and treating him worse. She would watch him to make sure he did not have anything in his possession to aid him in learning to read; it outraged her when she would see Douglass with aShow MoreRelatedNarrative Of The Life Of Frederick Douglass987 Words   |  4 PagesLife of Frederick In the â€Å"narrative of the life of Frederick Douglass an American slave written by himself† Frederick reveled to audience the time he was living as a slave and the moments of brutal treats for example psychological, emotional and physical abuses. He was suffering terrible moments during his 20 years as a slave in the twentieth century. In addition, he describes in his own words the strategies he used to escape from the slave holders and to be free. This story the â€Å"Narrative of theRead MoreNarrative Of The Life Of Frederick Douglass1730 Words   |  7 PagesOne of the most well-known slavery narratives was lived and written by Frederick Douglass, Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass. Frederick Douglass was a civil rights activist who was born into slavery on a plantation in eastern Maryland in February 1818. His exact birth date is unknown, he states in his narrative, â€Å"I have no accurate knowledge of my age, never having seen any authentic record containing it.†2 His birth name was Frederick Augustus Washington Bailey, which was given by hisRead MoreNarrative Of The Life Of Frederick Douglass Essay1102 Words   |  5 PagesDate Narrative Of The Life Of Frederick Douglass Writing in the favor of black people has always remained controversial from the very beginning. Critics regard such writing as â€Å"a highly conventionalized genre† indicating that â€Å"its status as literature was long disputed but the literary merits of its most famous example such as Frederick Douglass s Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass†¦are widely recognized today.† (Ryan:537) Despite of such severe resistance, writers like Douglass have pennedRead MoreThe Narrative Of The Life Of Frederick Douglass1566 Words   |  7 PagesThe â€Å"Narratives of the Life of Frederick Douglass† is the story of Frederick Douglass’ life from the time he was born into slavery, to the time he escaped to freedom in the north. When Douglass wrote this book, slavery was still legal in a large portion of the United States. After Douglass’ escape to freedom and his continuation of his education, he became an abolitionist through his works of literatu re and speeches. In â€Å"The Blessings of Slavery†, by George Fitzhugh he states that southern slavesRead MoreNarrative Of The Life Of Frederick Douglass1257 Words   |  6 PagesBook Review By Mary Elizabeth Ralls Narrative of the life of Frederick Douglass: An autobiography written by Frederick Douglass Millennium publication, 1945edition 75 pages Frederick Douglass whose real name was Frederick Augustus Washington Bailey approximately birthdate is in1818, the month or day is not known, he died in 1895. He is one of the most famous advocates and the greatest leaders of anti-slavery in the past 200 or so years.Read MoreNarrative Of The Life Of Frederick Douglass Essay1498 Words   |  6 Pagessoutherners believed that one of the most essential means of life was slavery. In the novel, Narrative of The Life of Frederick Douglass, Douglass challenges and debunks the idea of slavery being a necessary part of the white lifestyle; many pro-slavery arguments consisted of religion justifying slavery, slaves being â€Å"easily manipulated†/ignorant, and slavery keeping the southern economy from disappearing (The Proslavery Argument). Frederick uses personal experiences and other tactics to expose theRead MoreThe Narrative Of The Life Of Frederick Douglass1363 Words   |  6 Pages In The Narrative of the Life of Frederic k Douglass, Frederick Douglass portrays the importance of education because of its influence in leveling the playing field between the races in the 1800s. Education and knowledge are themes that are heavily dwelled upon throughout the novel, inspiring the reader to see the full power of such important ideals and to take the full advantage of both at all times. Douglass gives the reader a new appreciation for education as he delivers his message regardingRead MoreThe Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass1527 Words   |  7 Pagesconsidered â€Å"property† of their slaveholders and had no control over their own life. They were victims of psychological and physical brutal treatment. This story represents confinement, slavery and the lack of power African people had in such a racist society back in those days. African talents were absolutely wasted and they were considered inferior to white individuals. The â€Å"Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass† sim ply addresses that white society was causing negative effects to itself andRead MoreNarrative Of The Life Of Frederick Douglass1255 Words   |  6 PagesFrederick Douglass, throughout Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, uses religion to get many of his points across. In one way, religion plays a huge role in Douglass’ ability to become literate throughout the text. With the Bible and other Christian texts, Douglass is able to further his ability and the ability of others to read. This becomes important because as Douglass points out the slaveholders believe a literate slave is not a good slave. This union of literacy and religion show theRead MoreNarrative Of Life Of Frederick Douglass1271 Words   |  6 Pagesof many famous quotes by Frederick Douglass that illustrates that no dream or hope can be achieved without any action. In his autobiography Narrative of Life of Frederick Douglass, he outlines his life as a slave and his journey towards freedom through his de sire for education. In Narrative of Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave, the story expresses repression that slaves experienced through Douglass’s related experiences as a slave. The obstacles that Douglass conquers to achieve his education

Saturday, December 14, 2019

Death Of A Salesman †Play Review Free Essays

The play Death of a salesman is written by Arthur Miller. It is a massively touching play all about a man constantly chasing the American dream. The Sympathy the audience begins to feel for Willy Loman is shown by the way we feel about him at the end of this play. We will write a custom essay sample on Death Of A Salesman – Play Review or any similar topic only for you Order Now This is truly an amazing play written the talented Arthur Miller. We start the play seeing Willy Loman, his two sons and wife at their home as Willy arrives home from a hard days selling, at least this is what he leads Linda, his wife, into thinking. We join the play at the beginning of his failure. We see his get progressively disheartened and borrows money from his neighbour, Charley, and has convinced himself he will eventually be in the position to repay him, although as the audience we can see that this is highly unlikely. Our sympathy for Willy fades gradually as we realise he doesn’t seem to help himself. We get increasingly annoyed with Willy chasing the American dream; we see he does not accept help as when Charley offers him a job, after Willy is fired from his company. Willy gets extremely offended by this and gets angry wit Charley for insulting his ability to regain his job. Both Charley and Willy now that Charley will never see his money again, and the fact that Charley offers Willy a chance to get his life back on track and Willy refuses makes us feel that Willy is almost lazy and seems unfazed by his situation. The fact that Willy had an affair makes us feel sorry for Linda and as an audience we feel like Willy deserves all he gets, but we see the way it affects the whole family and when biff and happy both try to get jobs and fail we see that the effort Willy put in with both of them when they were younger has made almost no difference to them. They may have been better of if Willy, like Charley, had just left them to it. Bernard who is Charley’s son is extremely successful but never boasts, the main difference between the two sets of sons its that both Biff and Happy find it necessary to boast non stop, it seems, and Bernard is more laid back and tends not to make a big deal of the fact he can play tennis at a friends house. Willy treats Linda badly, always starting fights and just generally making little digs. The only time we see a mixture of love, anger and guiltiness on Willy’s part is when Linda is mending her stockings and he remembers that he gave a pair to ‘the women’ and he seems to get a pang of guilt and therefore tells Linda to take off the stockings. The main problem in Willy’s life is money, but it seems he would rather scrounge of people like Charley than get a real job, like the one Charley offers him. He plays an act when it comes to money as he lies to his family, especially Linda. He wants everyone to think he is rich and successful but really he is unsuccessful and becoming increasingly poor. Overall this play in touching and also infuriating, we find ourselves getting angry and points in the play, when we see Willy lying to friends and family it seems that the only person he is true to is Charley and that’s only to try and get money and sympathy from him. We feel extremely sorry for Willy and his family, especially Linda when noone turns up to Willy’s funeral. This seems like the almost perfect end to realistic play. When we see the full picture of Willy’s affair we become almost at one with Linda and tend to feel the same emotions as her, but mostly anger. How to cite Death Of A Salesman – Play Review, Papers

Friday, December 6, 2019

Microeconomics Elasticity Concept - Click to know Solution

Questions: 1. What is the midpoint method for calculating price elasticity of demand? How else can the price elasticity of demand be calculated? What is the advantage of the midpoint formula? 2. What are the key determinants of the price elasticity of demand for a product? What determinant is the most important? 3. In 2003, when music downloading first took off, Universal Music slashed the average price of a CD from $21 to $15. The company expected the price cut to boost the quantity of CDs sold by 30 per cent, other things remaining the same.What was Universal Musics estimate of the price elasticity of demand for CDs?If you were making the pricing decision at Universal Music, what would be your pricing decision? Explain your decision. 4. In May 2009, iTunes raised the price of 33 songs from 99 per download to $1.29 per download. In the week following the price rise, the quantity of downloads of these 33 songs fell 35 per cent. Taking this into account calculate the price elasticity of demand for these 33 songs. 5. A 5 per cent fall in the price of chocolate sauce increases the quantity of chocolate sauce demanded by 10 per cent; and with no change in the price of ice cream, the quantity of ice cream demanded increases by 15 per cent.Calculate the price elasticity of demand for chocolate sauce.Calculate the cross elasticity of demand for ice cream with respect to the price of chocolate sauce.Are ice cream and chocolate sauce substitutes or complements? Why? Answers: 1. The midpoint formula is used in calculating the arc elasticity. It gives the elasticity of one variable with respect to another variable between two points situated in the demand curve. The formula for price elasticity of demand is ((Q2-Q1) / ((Q2+Q1) / 2)) / ((P2-P1) / ((P2+P1) / 2)). Figure 1: Two points on the demand curve for calculating mid point arc elasticity. Source: As created by the author. In the figure above, P1 and Q1 are the initial level of price and quantity in the demand curve. Similarly, P2 and Q2 are the next level of price and quantity, which comes due to the change in price and commodity. According to Nelson (2013), the midpoint elasticity is calculated from these two points. It is calculated by dividing the variable by the midpoint value. The other ways of calculating the price elasticity of demand are: Total expenditure Method Revenue Method Point Elasticity of Demand Proportionate method According to Mankiw (2013), the advantage of using the midpoint formula is that wherever the two points on the demand curve might be, that does not affect the value of the price elasticity of a products demand. The points can be situated at any places of the demand curve, but the value will remain unaffected. According to Baumol and Blinder (2015), instead of taking the starting points in the curve, it is calculated by dividing the variable by the midpoint values. This makes the mid-point elasticity method more reliable than the other methods. 2. The key determinants of the price elasticity of demand for a product are as follows: The type of the commodity determines the price elasticity. A necessary good does not show the same price elasticity value as a luxury good. As stated by Wang (2016), the substitute goods available for a commodity determine the price elasticity of a good. If the good can be easily substituted by other goods, then price elasticity will be closer to one. If the available substitutes are less numbered, the price elasticity will be closer to zero, as the good cannot be replaced by other commodities during an increase in price. The duration of the change of price also plays a key determining role for the price elasticity of demand for the good. In the case of a long time of increased price, the consumers will prefer using the substitute goods. Importance of a commodity to the consumers is a key determinant of the price elasticity of demand for a product. As stated by Varian (2014), a necessary good is always more important to a consumer than a luxury good. Consumers level of income also determines the price elasticity of demand. If a consumer have low income level, then an increase in price will affect his demand pattern and he will shift to a substitute good. On the other hand, if the consumers income is high, he will be less affected by the change in price. Brand loyalty of the consumers also plays an important role here. A loyal consumer will stick to the good, even when a change in price occurs. 3. The quantity demanded has been changed by 30 percent or 3/10. The price has been changed by $21 - $15 = $6. Hence, the percent change in price is (15-21) / [1/2 (15 + 21)] = 1/3. Now the price elasticity of demand is Ed. Ed = {(Q1-Q2) / [1/2 (Q1+Q2)]} / {(P1-P2) / [1/2 (P1 + P2)]}. Here, Q1 is the initial quantity with P1 being the initial price. Q2 is the new level of quantity and P2 is the new level of price. Now putting the respective values, Ed becomes Ed = (3/10) / (1/3) = 9 / 10 = 0.9. Here the Ed is less than 1. Hence, the demand is inelastic. This shows the change in price has no effect on the demand of CDs of Universal Music. According to Toutkoushian and Paulsen (2016), this can be caused by Veblen effect or brand loyalty. Hence, the price decision can be in the favour of the company, where the company can increase the price, but due to the inelastic demand curve, the demand for the CDs of Universal Music remains the same. This way, the increased price level will only mean more revenue. 4. iTunes increased the price of 33 songs in the May of 2009. The price increased from 99 per download to $1.29 per download. Hence, the change in the price level of per download of 33 songs is as follows ($1.29-$0.99) = $ 0.3. This means, the total change in the level of price was (33*0.3) = $9.9. Therefore, the percentage change in the level of price per download was Pd = (P1-P2) / [1/2 (P1 + P2)]. Here, P1 and P2 are the initial and changed level of price. Pd = ($0.99-$1.29) / [(1/2)*($0.99 + $1.29)], or 0.2632. The percentage change in quantity demanded for all 33 songs are given by 35% = 35/100 = 0.35. Hence, the price elasticity of demand Ed for the songs is = {(Q1-Q2) / [1/2 (Q1+Q2)]} / {(P1-P2) / [1/2 (P1 + P2)]}. Putting the values in Ed, the elasticity can derived as, 0.35/0.2632 = 1.3. As stated by Gordon, Goldfarb and Li (2013), here, the price elasticity of demand is greater than 1. This means the demand for the 33 songs are elastic. Hence, an increase in the price level will result in decrease in the quantity demanded and vice versa. According to Cavalli and Naimzada (2015), this follows the basic law of demand, which states that an increase in the price will cause a decrease in the quantity demanded of a good, assuming all other things remaining constant. 5. Given that, 5 per cent fall in the price of chocolate sauce increases the quantity of chocolate sauce demanded by 10 per cent. Hence, own price elasticity for chocolate sauce is as given below: Price Elasticity of demand is given by = = 10% / 5% = 2. The price elasticity for demand of chocolate sauce is 2, which is greater than 1, i.e. Ed 1. Hence, it is elastic. As stated by Thimmapuram and Kim (2013), now any decrease in the price level will increase the demand, and an increase in the price level of the good will decrease the demand for chocolate sauce. The cross price elasticity of a product is as given by: = 15% / 5% = 3 Therefore, the cross price elasticity for ice cream is 3, which is greater than 1. Hence, the ice cream is elastic with respect to the price of chocolate sauce. According to Rios, McConnell and Brue (2013), that means a fall in the price of the chocolate sauce will increase the demand for the ice cream, and vice versa. This only makes ice cream and chocolate sauce complements. The reason behind this scenario is chocolate sauce is used with ice cream. It improves the taste of the ice cream. Hence, makes it a complementary product for ice cream. References: Baumol, W.J. and Blinder, A.S., 2015. Microeconomics: Principles and policy. Cengage Learning. Cavalli, F. and Naimzada, A., 2015. Effect of price elasticity of demand in monopolies with gradient adjustment. Chaos, Solitons Fractals, 76, pp.47-55. Gordon, B.R., Goldfarb, A. and Li, Y., 2013. Does price elasticity vary with economic growth? A cross-category analysis. Journal of Marketing Research, 50(1), pp.4-23. Mankiw, N.G., 2013. Elasticity and its Application Nelson, J.P., 2013. Meta-analysis of alcohol price and income elasticitieswith corrections for publication bias.Health economics review,3(1), pp.1-10. Rios, M.C., McConnell, C.R. and Brue, S.L., 2013. Economics: Principles, problems, and policies. McGraw-Hill. Thimmapuram, P.R. and Kim, J., 2013. Consumers' price elasticity of demand modeling with economic effects on electricity markets using an agent-based model. IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, 4(1), pp.390-397. Toutkoushian, R.K. and Paulsen, M.B., 2016. Demand and Supply in Higher Education. InEconomics of Higher Education(pp. 149-198). Springer Netherlands. Varian, H.R., 2014. Intermediate Microeconomics: A Modern Approach: Ninth International Student Edition. WW Norton Company Thirlwall, A.P., 2014. The balance of payments constraint as an explanation of the international growth rate differences.PSL Quarterly Review,32(128). Wang, S., 2016. Microeconomic Theory (Book). Browser Download This Paper.